Notes for chapter

1. H N Russell to H Shapley, 17 September 1920. Quoted in Smith (1982) p 89

2. Letter from H Shapley to J C Kapteyn, 6 February 1917. Quoted in Gingerich (1970) p 346

5. Quoted in DeVorkin (2000) p 104

7. Shapley (1909)

8. Landi, 2001. Reference Archivist, University of Missouri-Columbia. Personal communication

13. See DeVorkin (2000) p 257, and references therein

14. Lorett Treese, Bryn Mawr College Archivist (2001). Personal communication

15. Matthews (2001). Personal communication

17. See note 24 for a list of her papers

21. Mildred Shapley Matthews (2001). Personal communication. George Hamilton Combs was the author of several monographs, including The New Socialism and The Call of the Mountains

24. The five children were born in February 1915, March 1917, March 1919, June 1923, October 1927 (Mildred Shapley Matthews (2001), personal communication). Martha's papers appeared in Ap. J. 42 148-162, 1915 (submitted 2 April 1915); Ap. J. 44, 51-58, 1916 (submitted 3 April 1916); Ap. J. 45, 182-188, 1917 (submitted January 1917); Ap. J. 46, 56-63, 1917 (submitted April 1917); Ap. J. 50, 42-49 (submitted September 1918)and 107-140, 1919 (submitted November 1918); Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 30, 343-346, 1919; Harvard Observatory Circular No. 238, 1922; Harvard Bulletin No. 797 (1924); Harvard Bulletin Nos. 843, 844, 845 (1927)

25. That Shapley was thinking about the origins of the Milky Way, not just arrangement of stars, can be seen from his correspondence and minor papers. In 1918, writing to Hale, he suggested that stars in globular clusters were younger or had evolved more leisurely. In 1919, Shapley thought the Milky Way may have originated in the combination of two clusters and that it continued to accrete clusters. See Smith (1982) pp 63, 91

26. Shapley (1915)

28. See H Shapley to A Eddington, quoted in Smith (1982) p 60. Scutum would have been observable in summer and fall

29. Shapley (1917) p 216

30. Quoted in Smith (1982) p 32, and see also p 156

31. Shapley to Russell, 3 September 1917, see Berendzen and Hart (1973) p 53

32. Shapley to Russell, 31 October 1917, see Smith (1982) p 60

34. Haramundanis (1996) p 177

35. Quoted in Gingerich (1970) p 347

36. All quotes are from Shapley to Hale, 19 January 1918, quoted in Smith (1982) p 62

37. Hale to Shapley, 14 March 1918, quoted in Smith (1982) p 68

38. 10 December 1917, Adams to Hale. The exchange is quoted in Smith (1982) pp 76-77

42. H Shapley to H Russell, 31 March 1920, quoted in Smith (1982) p 80

44. For details about the debate, as opposed to the printed versions of the talks, see Hoskin (1976)

45. All quotes, see Hoskin (1976)

47. Both quotes, Hoskin (1976) p 174

50. Hoagland (1965) p 429

51. Haramundanis (1996) p 124

52. Haramundanis (1996) p 141

53. Haramundanis (1996) p 154

54. Haramundanis (1996) p 154

55. Hers was also, necessarily, the first astronomy PhD awarded to a woman at Harvard, but it was not the first astronomy PhD awarded to a woman in the United States — see Haramundanis (1996) p x

57. H Shapley to A van Maanen, 8 June 1921, quoted in Berendzen and Hart (1973)

58. Haramundanis p 209

61. See http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/Emergency/ index.html

62. Shapley (1969) p 127

64. The history of the NSF, and quotes relating to it, are from Blanpied (1998)

66. Shapley (1969) pp 145-149

67. Shapley's passing of the torch to Needham and Huxley is revealed in a State Department memo of 29 August 1945 (501.PA/8-2945). I am indebted to Dr. Gail Archibald of Unesco's Section on Engineering Sciences and Technology and Mr. Mahmoud Ghander at Unesco's Archive services in Paris, for their help Dr. Archibald kindly shared with me her presentation copy of a paper she presented at the XXIst International Congress of History of Science, Mexico City, 8-14 July 2001, on "Putting the 'S' in Unesco (1943-1945).''

69. Shapley (1969) p 156

70. Shapley (1969) p 154

71. Shapley (1969) p 167

72. See Matthews, M S and Wilkening, L L (1982) Comets (Tucson: University of Arizona Press); Binzel, R P, Gehrels, T, and Matthews, M S (1989) Asteroids II (Tucson: University of Arizona Press); Kieffer, H H, Jakosky, B M, and Matthews, M S (eds) (1997) Mars (Tucson: University of Arizona Press); Lewis, John S, Matthews, Mildred S, and Guerrieri, Mary L (eds) (1997) Resources of Near-Earth Space (Tucson: University of Arizona Press)

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