## Discussion

A historical viewpoint acquired either before or after the actual work is one of the author's principles of scientific enquiry. The PIG theory of gravitation presented in Sections 4 and 5 is based on recent results of empirical cosmology and was originally somewhat unhistorical its counterpart, EGC had some historical substantiation from the start. The PIG theory also involves the AAAD aspect, though basically it is an MFLA effect. Eventually, a historical introduction to all the main...

## The Current State

The most intriguing problem to me now is to combine the features of the variable mass solution with the features of the pushing gravity models. The Ma-chian communication of the variable mass solution with matter at increasing distances offers a solution for the quantization values as reflecting discrete drops in mean density as we proceed outward in a hierarchical universe (Nar-likar and Arp, 2000). But that communication is electromagnetic at the velocity of light. Is it possible to transfer...

## How gravitons can give relativistic properties of gravity

The key to understanding relativity in a quantum gravity context (i.e., using gravitons) is to be familiar with the flat-space interpretation of GR, and to appreciate that the medium responsible for the transmission of light waves is not the graviton medium. The speed at which waves propagate through any medium is always close to the speed of motion of the principal constituents of that medium. For example, for a gas, the wave speed is V5 3 of the speed of the particles in that gas. But as we...

## The Blurring Problem

It has been suggested that the multiple scatterings of the Compton effect should cause stars to be blurred because the effect requires the photon to change direction to produce a redshift. The answer lies in the dual particle and wave nature of light. The Compton effect is entirely explained in terms of the conservation of energy and momentum. It is not dependent on the charge of the target. Compton (1923) attributed the presence of an unshifted line in his data (in addition to the shifted line...

## The Synthetic Hypothesis

Let us suppose that outer space is filled with an isotropic uniform gravitational field which we can liken to an electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency. Let us designate p as the material density of the field, keeping in mind with this concept the value of the inert mass contained in a unit volume of space. Evidently the density of that part of the field which is moving in a chosen direction within the solid angle dm is p(dm 4n). Under these conditions a mass of will pass through any...

## The 2Body Problem Newtons Law and Solution of the Dilemma

For the needs of the general topic of the present paper, let us derive Newton's law in yet another way. Consider two spherical bodies B1 and B2 with masses m1 and m2, radii Ri and R2, separated by a distance r. The inflow of cosmic gravitons onto B1, which is proportional to m1, is partially blocked by B2, which covers a fraction A2 2n of the sky on B1 A2 Rr2 is the solid angle of B2 seen from B1. This brings about in B1 a change of momentum towards B2, i.e. a net force, S1 n2m 1A2 2n rj2m1 R...

## Expanding Earth

Carey reported detailed geological data which implied the earth had been expanding. K.M. Creer (1965) was one of many who showed how accurately the continents fitted together in the past and M. Kokus (1994) calculated how the observed sea floor spreading in the mid Atlantic ridge supported this interpretation. Naturally without an identifiable physical cause most scientists abandoned these empirical conclusions in favour of the theory that there was nothing of...

## Static Universe Long Wavelength Background Radiation

A static universe model, in which the redshift is caused by the Compton effect, is what Reber calls an Endless, Boundless Stable Universe (Reber, 1977). In this universe there is a need to show that Olbers' paradox is not a problem and that the universe is indeed stable. If the universe is infinite in extent with a constant density of light sources, then the night sky should appear to be totally bright. This is because the number of galaxies increases with the cube of the distance from an...

## Gravitational Aberration Propagation Delay

The classic Newtonian force equation F GMm R 2 and its gravitic potential a GM R 2 are expressions that define the instantaneous force and acceleration generated by the interaction of mass M with any other mass m at the given distance R. As this is explicitly a static solution, no attempt is made to account for any motion of M or m. However, orbiting masses are not a static problem. The above equations are therefore not strictly applicable for any such system if the speed at which the force is...

## References

Abdurakhmanov, A.I., Firstov, P.P., Shirikov, V.A., 1974. A possible link between volcanic eruptions and cycles of solar activity (in Russian). 15th General Assembly of MGGS theses. Symposium on volcanism and earthquakes in the upper mantle, Moscow. pp. 3-4. Abdurakhmanov, A.I., Firstov, P.P., Shirikov, V.A., 1976 (in Russ.). Byul. Vulkanol. Stantsiy 52 3-10. Allais, Maurice, 1959. Aerospace Engineering, September and October. Allen, A.M., 1936. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 26 147. * John Bagby, in...

## Fatio and Newton

When in the late spring of 1689 Huygens paid his first visit to England, Fatio escorted his friend about the capital. He was also present at the Royal Society meeting where Huygens and Newton met for the first time. It probably also served as the occasion for Fatio's introduction to Newton. The encounter had a strong impact on both men. Before long Fatio openly expressed his veneration of Newton, 'the most honourable man I know, and the ablest mathematician who has ever lived'. Newton's letters...

## Additional properties of gravity implied by gravitons

A Newtonian or Einsteinian gravitational field is a mathematical construct that has an infinite range. However, if gravitons are the carriers of the force of gravity, then gravity cannot have an infinite range because, sooner or later, the gravitons will strike something and cease to convey their message from the source. If nothing else gets in the way sooner, each graviton will travel until it hits another graviton and gets scattered. The average or root-mean-square (rms) distance that a...

## Predictions

Le Sagian particle gravity was designed to explain the basic characteristics of Newtonian gravity induced test particle accelerations toward a source mass, proportional to the source mass, and falling off with the square of distance from that source mass. As we have seen, if a light-carrying medium (elysium) is included, then our Le Sagian model yields all classical general relativity effects as well without need of adjustable parameters light slowing and bending, gravitational redshift, and...

## Recent Le Sage Type Theories

Despite the general emphasis on Majorana's rather than Le Sage's theory, the latter has cropped up in new forms several times in the last half-century. A partial listing of these newer theories would include the works of Radzievskii and Kagalnikova (1960), Shneiderov (1943, 1961a), Buonomano and Engel (1976), Adamut (1976, 1982), Veselov (1981), Jaakkola (1996) and Van Flandern (1999). As many of these theories are discussed more fully elsewhere in this book, and in some cases reprinted, the...

## Majoranas Analysis and Experiment

In his second series of experiments concerning the absorption of gravitation, Majorana tried to decide whether gravity was due to something emitted from the Earth (his own hypothesis), or something coming to the Earth from space (such as Le Sage's corpuscles). He supposed that in the first case the weight of the test body would be decreased by a screen placed between the Earth and the test body, but not if the screen were placed above the test body. In the second case, the converse would be...

## Majoranas Hypothesis

Quirino Majorana (1871-1957)* was an Italian experimental physicist who devoted many years of his active life to the search for gravitational absorption. Nowadays Majorana's better known researches are those related to the second principle of the special theory of relativity. He attempted to detect changes in the speed of light emitted (or reflected) by moving bodies, but contrary to his expectations he confirmed that the speed of light is independent of the speed of its source. As this result...

## Nicolas Fatio de Duillier on the Mechanical Cause of Universal Gravitation

Attempts to explain Newton's universal attraction of material bodies date back to the early reception of Newton's Principia (1687). In a sense, Newton himself had opened the door to the causal issue. For in the Principia Newton repeatedly stressed that he did not conceive of attraction in a physical sense, that is as an immediate action of one body upon another. 'Attraction' was to be understood as merely a shorthand expression for the tendency of material bodies to approach one another,...

## Objections to classical graviton models

Models featuring gravitons have been debated for the better part of three centuries. The following is a list of the various objections raised, and how those objections are answered in the present model. If particle collisions with matter are perfectly elastic, momentum is conserved and no (gravitational) net force will result. 25 (Answer Particle collisions must be inelastic or partially absorbed and partially scattered. Particles may lose velocity and absorbed particles will raise the...

## Majoranas experiment Russells criticism

Majorana did not insist in his investigations on a concrete physical interpretation of the law of gravitation. He simply started from the supposition that if there is a material screen between two interacting material points A and B, the force of their attraction is weakened by gravitational absorption of this screen 21, 22, 25 . As in the Lomonosov-Le Sage hypothesis, Majorana took attenuation of the gravitational flux to be proportional to the value of the stream itself, the true density of...

## Le Sages Theory in Bare Outline

Le Sage imagines that the observable universe is bathed in a sea of ultramundane corpuscles called ultramundane (ultramondain) because they impinge on us from outside the known universe. These corpuscles have the following properties minute mass, enormous speed, and complete inelasticity. Now, all apparently solid objects, such as books and planets, are mostly void space. Consequently, gross objects absorb but a minuscule fraction of the ultramundane corpuscles that are incident upon them. From...

## Le Sages Legacy

Modern historians of science often do not know what to do with Le Sage. Many regard Le Sage's system as bizarre or even worse. One writer has characterized it as imprecise, qualitative and even retrogressive.53 But Le Sage's contemporaries did not deny that his system accomplished its aim, i.e., that its premises did, indeed, result in Newtonian gravitation. And, contrary to the impression given by some recent writing, Le Sage was a good Newtonian and he fought hard in one of the last...

## Early History of Le Sages Theory

Details of the early history of Le Sage's theory may be found in Le Sage's own paper, Lucr ce Newtonien (Le Sage, 1784), Kelvin's paper (Kelvin, 1873) and numerous later accounts (Taylor, 1877 Darwin, 1905 Aronson, 1964 Roseveare, 1982 Van Lunteren, 1991 see also the articles by Van Lunteren and Evans in this volume). The following account is drawn primarily from Aronson (1964). Le Sage proposed that gravity is caused by the continuous bombardment of ordinary matter by ultramundane corpuscles...

## Newton on Fatios theory

When Fatio returned to England in 1692, he still had not published his theory of gravity. In fact he had lost the manuscript. In time, however, he managed to retrieve it. Meanwhile he had put his hopes on Newton. A new and enlarged edition of the Principia would be the ideal vehicle for the disclosure of his causal explanation. Newton began his revision of the Principia immediately after its publication. He entered the alterations in several copies of the book, allowing some of his intimates to...

## An Conclusion To Astronomy

In this paper a new version of Le Sage's theory of gravity has been proposed. The fundamental assumption that we have made is that a gravitational medium of electromagnetic radiation exists which defines a primary reference frame. While confirming evidence for a medium of sufficient energy density is still lacking, its existence poses no special theoretical difficulties. Indeed, the need for a gravitational ether had been expressed even by Einstein. In this light, a systematic search for an...

## Preface

To many readers of physics, the history of theories of gravitation may be summed up approximately as follows. After a chaotic period featuring vortex ether models and the like, gravity was at last put on a firm scientific footing by Newton. In the following centuries Newton's theory saw success after success, until a few unexplained anomalies, such as the advance of the perihelion of Mercury, paved the way for Einstein's General Relativity. The latter theory has remained without serious...

## The Nature of Gravitation

Kagalnikova Introduction The discovery of the law of universal gravitation did not immediately attract the attention of researchers to the question of the physical nature of gravitation. Not until the middle of the 18th century did M.V. Lomonosov 1 and several years later, Le Sage 2,3 , make the first attempts to interpret the phenomenon of gravitation on the basis of the hypothesis of 'attraction' of one body to another by means of 'ultracosmic' corpuscles. The...

## Introduction

Electromagnetic radiation fills all space, including interatomic space it propagates with a velocity q < c (c being the velocity of light) it transports energy, momentum, angular momentum and it leads to continuous motions of bodies in space. Radiation and matter interact by means of emission and absorption processes and transform from one to another by combustion, nuclear reactions, gravitational collapse, absorption, etc. In Newton's law F12 f (M1M2 r ), F12 is the force needed in order to...

## Eclipse Experiments

Observational evidence for gravitational absorption has also been sought during solar and lunar eclipses, with findings both for and against being reported (for reviews, see Gillies, 1997, Martins, 1999 and Borzeszkowski and Treder, this volume). In these studies, however, it is not entirely clear what the predicted effects should be for Le Sage's theory. In the case of a gravimeter passing through totality during a solar eclipse, for example, we would need to compute separately the attenuation...

## Gravitational Absorption According to the Hypotheses of Le Sage and Majorana

According to kinetic models of gravitation such as Le Sage's and Majorana's, it should be possible to reduce the gravitational attraction between two bodies by the use of material shields. It is usually supposed that Majorana's theory would only predict this effect when the shield is placed between the two bodies, and that Le Sage's theory would predict the existence of this effect in the case of an external shield. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of both theories leading to the...

## Huygens objections

Meanwhile Huygens had worked out his own compromise. His attitude towards Newton's theory was ambivalent. He accepted Newton's claim that an inverse square centripetal force, rather than a Cartesian vortex produced plane tary motion. But he dismissed Newton's mutual attraction of all material bodies in the universe. In his view, such an attraction was both unwarranted and redundant. Instead, he extended his explanation of terrestrial gravity to the solar realm. It only remained to investigate...

## Riemanns Theory of Gravity

Riemann attempted to extend his three-dimensional geometry of curved spaces into a unified theory of an ether of gravity, electricity and magnetism. As part of this effort, he developed a specific Ansatz of a gravitational ether, which was later partly realized in Einstein's general relativity. Unlike Einstein, however, Riemann intended to found a theory where, in domains with nonvanishing matter density, there is an absorption of the flux of ether by matter causing a gravitational interaction...

## Mechanical explanations of terrestrial gravity

For a better understanding of the nature and genesis of Fatio's theory of gravity, we must first consider pre-Newtonian accounts of the cause of terrestrial gravity. In the course of the seventeenth century philosophers came to reject * Hall, Philosophers at war, 104-109, 118-121 Zehe, Die Gravitationstheorie, 35-40. Manuel, A portrait of Isaac Newton, 205-206 D. Gjertsen, The Newton handbook (London & New York, 1986) 198 Westfall, Never at rest, 654. * Domson, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier,...

## Compton Effect Redshift

In this model, there are electrons, positrons and other free particles between galaxies. As light travels through this transparent medium, it loses energy to these free particles in the following manner. Hubble's law observes that z AA A HD or where AA is the redshifted change in wavelength, A is the original wavelength, D is the distance to the object, and H is Hubble's constant of proportionality (H is sometimes conventionally expressed as H c for convenience for the Dop-pler interpretation)....

## Electro Gravity

The early apparent successes of Einstein to do away with the aether put an end to the connection between the aether and gravity, replacing it with an even more arcane concept, that of geometrical space-time. Now the quantities of energy or mass concentrations required to alter gravity technologically were so far out of reach of humanity that the pursuit of any experimental techniques was considered a mere pipedream. However, with the success of the Manhattan Engineering District project at...

## Did Majorana Measure the Absorption of Gravitation

In the 1920's everyone agreed that Majorana was a careful researcher, and his experimental method was never criticised. There are, however, three doubtful points. First in his measurements the attained sensibility was of the same order of magnitude as the measured effect. Indeed, any single position of the light spot on the scale was read within 0.1 mm, corresponding to a weight change of 0.6 g. In the mercury experiments the net measured effect was a weight decrease of 0.97 g, and in the lead...

## Majoranas Experiments on Gravitational Absorption

Around 1920 the Italian physicist Quirino Majorana claimed that he had measured an effect that may be called gravitational absorption the reduction of the gravitational attraction between two bodies when one of them is enclosed inside a thick material shell. He published the results of experiments where a test body was surrounded either by mercury or by lead, and in both cases he detected a weight reduction of about one part in 109. This paper presents the theory underlying Majorana's work,...

## The Graviton

One can quantize the gravitational force from this Le Sage mechanism. A quantization of this force identifies the graviton as a quantization of the 'shadow' cast in the long wavelength background radiation field by a mass. It is like the absence of a photon. Thus, the graviton is similar to an electron hole in a semiconductor. This graviton travels at c. (But consider the special case of a beam of long wavelength radiation penetrating a massive body and a second body entering its shadow. The...

## How Much Drag Results from Motion through the Graviton

Consider a particle moving with a velocity V with respect to the rest frame in which the graviton flux is isotropic with respect to direction. Consider the gravitons incident on the particle from a solid angle dD.i at an angle a from V, as seen in the rest frame as shown in Figure 3. The incident graviton flux is NvgdD.i in the rest frame due to its motion, the particle sees a flux (to first order in vjvg ) of NdD,i (vg + vcosa). Each graviton's momentum is mg (-vgr) in the rest frame as seen...

## Earth Expansion

The case against plate tectonics or continental drift theory is growing, but is not often reported in the popular literature and is much too long to present here. Essentially, all of the arguments raised against plate tectonics in the early 70's are still valid. The more we know about continental roots and the mantle, the more unlikely it is that thermal convection exists there. The theory has been accepted as fact for over 30 years and its proponents still cannot agree upon a final map of...

## Earthquake Patterns and Related Anomalies

In the standard theories, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are treated as random occurrences. Most researchers in seismic prediction assume that any non-randomness would be a small variation brought about by tides. They are usually surprised by the depth and self-consistency of the literature on a subject that they have ignored. There are strong relationships between earth, solar and lunar positions solar activity and seismic activity, most of which cannot be explained by the local tides....

## The Observational Impetus for Le Sage Gravity

For many years I never questioned the obvious fact that masses attracted each other (inversely as the square of their separation, to complete the mantra). The 'attraction' was so blatant that it required no thought. But then observations of galaxies and quasars forced me to accept the fact that extragalactic redshifts were primarily intrinsic and not the result of recessional velocity in an expanding universe. How did this lead to my abandoning pulling gravity and investigating pushing gravity...

## The Electro Thermodynamic Theory of Gravitation

This paper summarizes the electro-thermodynamic theory of gravitation (TETG) elaborated by Iosif Adamut in the nineteen eighties. In this model, space is filled with a symmetric blackbody electromagnetic radiation field described by a continuous spectrum 0 < v < < . Due to attenuation of this radiation in passing through bodies, a Newtonian force is generated between them. Adamut obtained a gravitational formula identical to Newton's law, with the gravitational constant f k0K0gK. K0g...

## Martin Kokus

For decades there have been strong correlations between seismic eruptions and the positions of the earth, moon and sun as well as the level of solar activity. While a few of the weaker correlations can be incorporated into the standard theories, the stronger and more predominate relationships have no explanation within accepted theories of gravity and geology. There are also peculiarities in earth rotation which cannot be explained by Newtonian gravity but are consistent with other observed...

## Le Sage Gravity and General Relativity

Some possible links between Le Sage gravity and GR are also evident. Near a large body, such as the Sun, an object necessarily experiences a reduced Le Sage pressure from the direction of the body. If the 'Le Sage frame' were defined as one in which the velocities and numerical densities of Le Sage corpuscles or waves are the same in all directions, then it is apparent that such a frame in the vicinity of the Sun would be 'falling' towards it. This suggests a Le Sage formulation of GR, in which...

## Force Heat and Drag in a Graviton Model

Starting from a basic premise, gravitons interacting with matter, we derive rigorous formulas to relate three macroscopic physical properties force, heat, and drag to parameters describing graviton properties. Classical objections to graviton models are that no force exists if all gravitons are scattered, and the generated heat would vaporize masses if all gravitons are absorbed. The formulas derived here allow the placement of constraints on the graviton parameters. When gravitons are partly...

## Conclusion

Sagredo But of what kind and how great must we consider this speed of light to be Is it instantaneous or momentary or does it, like other motion, require time Can we not decide this by experiment Simplicio Everyday experience shows that the propagation of light is instantaneous for when we see a piece of artillery fired, at great distance, the flash reaches our eyes without lapse of time but the sound reaches the ear only after a noticeable interval. Galileo's Two New Sciences Herein, we...

## Newtons Aether Stream Hypothesis and the Inverse Square Law of Gravitation

When he was writing the Principia, Newton was anxious to convince Hal-ley that he had learnt nothing from Hooke. In a letter to Halley dated 20 June 1686, Newton claimed that the inverse square law for the attraction was implied in his unpublished essay, 'An Hypothesis explaining the Properties of Light discoursed of in my severall Papers', communicated to Oldenburg in 1675 and registered in the Royal Society. In this document, Newton developed the hypothesis of a universal aether, explaining...