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109 1010 10" 10« Huence (Particle • cm"2)

Fig. 8-12. • A Plot of the Probabilities of Exceeding Given Fluence Levels for Satellite Mission Durations of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 Years. The plot represents protons with energies above 10 MeV. These values pertain to satellite missions near the solar activity maxima [Feynman et al., 1988].

Fig. 8-12. • A Plot of the Probabilities of Exceeding Given Fluence Levels for Satellite Mission Durations of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 Years. The plot represents protons with energies above 10 MeV. These values pertain to satellite missions near the solar activity maxima [Feynman et al., 1988].

Energy (QeVMudeon)

Fig. 8-13. Energy Spectra for Several Elements of Galactic Cosmic Rays. The energy for hydrogen has been multiplied by a factor of 5 to distinguish It from the helium curve.

Energy (QeVMudeon)

Fig. 8-13. Energy Spectra for Several Elements of Galactic Cosmic Rays. The energy for hydrogen has been multiplied by a factor of 5 to distinguish It from the helium curve.

Cosmic rays pose a serious hazard because a single particle can cause a malfunction in common electronic components such as random access memory, microprocessors, and hexfet power transistors. When a single passing particle causes this malfunction, we call radiation effects single-event phenomena, or SEP.

A galactic cosmic ray loses energy mainly by ionization. This energy loss depends chiefly on the square of the particle's charge, Z, and can be increased if the particle

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