born again each morning, so that the aforementioned equation with Apollo may be unnecessary. The sun god is also normally thought of as lord of the year, in which role he is to be born at the winter solstice [cf. Fraser (ed., T.H. Gaster) 1959, p. 633]. The appropriate nature of the association of Oengus Mac nOg with Newgrange is clear. The father of Oengus was Dagda or "good god" who seduced Oengus's mother, Boand, away from her husband, who was variously called Elcmar, Nechtan, or Nuadu of the Silver Hand. Boand is the later version of the name of the river goddess Buvinda, "White Cow"—the name of the presumed moon goddess whose name was given to the river Boyne.

O'Rahilly thinks that Necthan is a Gaelic name cognate with the Latin Neptune and is a byname of Nuadu; the latter name appears in Britain as Nodons (O'Rahilly 1946/1957, p. 321) and is surprisingly equated with Mars in one inscription (O'Rahilly 1946/1957, p. 527), although O'Rahilly equates him with the sun god and the "Otherworld-god of the Celts." The "silver-hand" suggests a linkage with Tsiw, the Germanic war god, whose hand was bitten off by the Fenris Wolf. Tsiw's name is incorporated in our Tuesday, the day of Mars in the planetary week. Elcmar or Elcmaire is supposed to have possessed the Brugh na Boinne before Oengus. An Irish tale tells how Cuchulainn, the "Hound of Cuala," "speared a salmon in the Boyne and then mutilated Elcmaire, who had entered the river to oppose him." (O'Rahilly 1946/1957, p. 320). The salmon that Elcmaire attempted to protect may have been the "Salmon of Wisdom," supposed to have resided in a pool at the head of the Boyne, but the complexities of identification are not adequately treated by O'Rahilly. Celtic lore also knows sun god desses, of whom the greatest is Grian, "sun," and another is probably Etain who lives in a crystal grianan or sun-house (O'Rahilly 1946/1957, pp. 287-293)—a description that once would have fitted Newgrange well.

Eogan (1986, p. 20) reproduces from the Seanchas na Relec (the History of the Cemeteries) a list of burials of the Tuatha de Danann,10 the people of the goddess Danu. One of the burials is the "Caisel" (castle) of Aengus, probably Newgrange. Another is the grave of Boinn, the goddess herself; it would be interesting to know which (if any) of the mounds was particularly associated with her name. Features of the area included the "paps of Morrigan," the war goddess; the mound of Tresc; the mound of the Bones; the cave of Buailcc Bec; and the items associated with Esclam, Aedh Luirgnech, Cirr, Cuirell, Cellach, Cineadh, and "the pillar stone of Buidi, 'where his head is interred'". The names are more or less obscure, and there is no direct evidence for tying most of them to particular mounds, but the list may yet become important in suggesting interpretations of astronomy. At the moment, the most that can be said is that the gods were associated with the mounds and that at least some of the associated gods are planetary, but we have no evidence for planetary alignments at these sites, nor perhaps could one readily expect them. Planetary movements are much more complex than are those of the Sun or even the Moon due to the effects of the relative motions of planet and Earth, causing variations between synodic period intervals.

Celtic deities, later euhemerized to become early rulers of Ireland.

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