New/full moon

ff. Mollien 1853.

ff. Mollien 1853.

(5) The Lords of the 15 tithis (lunar nights)

(6) 27 lunar mansions, each with its god, its bird, its tree, and its animal

(7) 16 directional gods each with an associated animal mount

All animals in the entire diagram face the CCW direction, but in all cases, the sequence proceeds CW (toward the face of the next figure). The series of 11 animals is rat, snake, dog, sacouni (a bird), cock, bull, elephant, horse, pig, tiger, and lion.

Six of the series are derived from the "rat zodiac" by a regular procession:

Rat + 5 = Snake; Snake + 5 = Dog; Dog + 15 = Bull; Bull + 5 = Horse; Horse + 5 = Pig, where the names refer to the rat zodiac (see Figure 10.2). The Cock and Tiger are in both lists but not in regular correspondence. The sacouni seems to replace the Hare; the elephant and lion are absent from most versions of the rat zodiac. The gods ruling the Trichinopoly lunar mansions are not the usual ruling deities, but instead are repetitions of the gods associated with the five elements:

(3) Ganga-Deva, god of the Ganges River, water

(4) Evil Spirit, earth

(5) Milky Way, ether

The 12 signs of the zodiac show five, typically Indian, replacements:

(1) Makara (a composite, crocodile-like animal) for Goat-Fish

(2) Pot for Aquarius

(3) Bow for Sagittarius

(4) a single Fish for Pisces

(5) a male and female figure (as in Egypt) for Gemini

The representations of Chellambaram are as illuminating as those of Trichinopoly. The center is occupied by an unusual 5 x 5 magic square, containing only 5 different numbers (10, 18, 4, 13, 6) totaling 51 in all directions. However, although all magic squares give the same result horizontally, vertically, and diagonally, the normal 5 x 5 square is the only one that gives the same result starting from a corner and adding numbers as by a knight's move in chess. In the Chellambaram representation, the figures united by the knight's move are repetitions of the same number. Each of these positions is associated with a symbol or word. At least some of these symbols are used elsewhere to mark astronomical relationships. A square "wall" with four gates at the cardinal points surrounds the magic square. Three deities stand in each of the gates, and four others are at the inside corners. Outside the gates are four pairs of named elephants, and outside the corners are four pairs of named serpents. The Sun is centered on the east gate, and the other eight planetary gods (in their weekday day order reckoning CW) are arrayed along the walls. The planetary gods are accompanied by gods ruling Earth, Fire, Water, and

Wind, and by four other gods. Arranged circularly outside this area are eight animals of the Eight Regions: Cock, Cat, Lion, Dog, Bull, Hare, Elephant, and Crow, and then the 12 signs of the zodiac appear in a circular arrangement. Finally, there is a circle of the 27 lunar mansions marked by their deities. The magic square of 5 also has an unusual distribution of odd relative to even numbers, such that there are odd numbers in all four corners and the remaining odd numbers constitute a cross, centered on 13:

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