353. 13 Ahau 13 Cumku End of katun

13 Ahau

I lmix

14 Cumku First day of 260—day round and first day of katun

II Ahau the katun of f creation 1 Ahau 13 Muan the autumn equinox at or 1 day past the heliacal rising of Venus

Figure 12.7 shows drawings of some eclipse and planetary gods according to DHK's identifications. The match between astronomical intervals and intervals determined by day names is a good one and is strongly supported by icono-graphic parallels in the deity representations. The equation of the paired black gods, aged merchants, and warriors, with the slow-moving outer planets, Jupiter and Saturn, is icono-graphically appropriate. Mars, long equated with the monster who ruled the month Zip, has a period ending in the month Zip. Xolotl, equated by this evidence with Venus,

Figure 12.7. Drawings of some planetary and eclipse gods: (a) Two representations of a Moon goddess, Nine Reed. Drawings by Sharon Hanna. (b) A Venus god (Ten Lizard) and an eclipse goddess (Eleven Snake), ff. the Vienna Codex. Drawing by Sean Goldsmith.

has long been regarded in the more restricted sense as Venus when an evening star.

Only Nine Wind, wind god and Feathered Serpent (Aztec Quetzalcoatl, Maya Kukulcan), is a surprise. Clear-cut, early colonial evidence identified Quetzalcoatl as the Morning Star, in terms that seem to refer to Venus. The interval of 114 days from 12 Lamat 1 Pop to 9 Ik 15 Xul refers equally clearly (in Kelley's view) to Mercury, which has a mean synodic period of 115.8+ days, and the mass of additional calendar names can also be fitted most easily to Mercury. Among the Mayas, the end of the month Xul was dedicated to Kukulcan. However, the fact that five Mercury rounds approximate roughly to one Venus round (5 days off) means that some equations can fit Venus as well. A Mixtec reference to Nine Wind as Twins, iconographic representations of a Nine Wind as a Flint Knife god identified with Venus, and Aztec references to Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl as twins suggest that we may be dealing here with a theological or political reinterpretation of Quetzalcoatl, transforming him from a god of peace and life identified with Mercury and dynastic ancestor of kings into a patron of warfare and the warlike kings of Tula, identified with Venus. New evidence, cited below, suggests that both identifications may be ancient. The Aztec god, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, "Lord of the House of Dawn," is represented as a giant flint knife and is associated with the days 9 Wind. A flint knife god is also associated with the day 3 Dog. 3 Dog precedes 9 Wind in the calendar by 32 days (modulo 260) and hence would represent 292 days or half a Venus synodic period. In the Mixtec Nuttall codex (pp. 14-22), there is an account of a woman named Three Flint Feathered Serpent who comes first from the Seven Caves and then from the temple of the Feathered Serpent, which has a mummy bundle identified as Nine Wind Flint Knife and is later often identified by a Venus staff in front of the temple. Three Flint gives birth to a daughter of the same name, then goes into a cave and emerges into a river ruled by the gods Four Death and Four Deer with their wives One Twisted and One Eagle. On the basis of dates associated with Four Death and Four Deer, DHK thinks that they are winter solstice gods. Then Three Flint and her husband, Five Flower, are shown sacrificing a white dog. After this, her children are shown and include a Nine Wind, but with the attributes of Quetzalcoatl rather than those of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli. Either Three Flint or her daughter of the same name marries a man named Twelve Wind, who comes from above the star-marked sky band, and their children are involved in a repeated version of the War with Heaven. This Mixtec version should be compared in detail with Aztec accounts of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and with Iroquois accounts of the Flint Knife god, Tawiskaron, the evil twin of the Corn God. Floyd Lounsbury recognized that the Iroquois name is a borrowing from the prototype of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli. The prototype of the Aztec name would have been *Tawiskalpan + Tecuhtli ("lord"). The Iroquois had a white dog sacrifice at the time of the winter solstice in honor of Tawiskaron's twin brother, the Corn god (Lounsbury cited in Hall 1991; Lounsbury, personal communication to DHK). The Mixtec parallel was noted by DHK. Two representations from Nahua sources showing Quetzalcoatl as a bearded ruler appear in Figure 12.8 with a Maya depiction of the god in Feathered Serpent form.

Figure 12.8. The Feathered Serpent: (a) Two versions of Quet-zalcoatl as a bearded ruler, from Nahua sources. (b) The Feathered Serpent god with "star" glyph and suffix, na, from a Classic Maya pot. Drawings by Sean Goldsmith.

In any case, the astronomical behavior of Venus and Mercury, the two inner planets, always close to the Sun, erratic in apparent movement, invisible for long periods, relatively swift moving, and having both inferior and superior conjunctions (§2.4.3), is enough to suggest that it is appropriate to regard them as twins. Long calculations going back to the birth (or rebirth) of the gods at Palenque seem to involve the Sun, Mercury, and Venus (see §12.7). In 2000, new work at Palenque revealed data on one of the later rulers of Palenque and recorded the birth of GI on 9 Ik 5 Mol. Mayanists have referred to this as an "elder" GI, but the "birth" of a planetary god is a repeating phenomenon. It now seems probable that the Mixtec brothers named Nine Wind were Mercury and Venus. The "Mercury" brother was born on 9 Ik 15 Xul (114 days after the postulated base date 12 Lamat 1 Pop). Assuming that it was important to have a Nine Wind date that was at a Venus interval, the 1st one after 12 Lamat 1 Pop was 8174 days later at 9 Ik 5 Mol (14 x 583.92 = 8174.88 days). A standard 584-day synodic period would yield 8176 days. This is important support for the concept that calendar names were counted from a single base date. DHK thinks that the "birth" term was unlikely to have been applied to superior conjunction, and DHK's hypothesis (shown in Table 12.7) that the 12

Lamat 1 Pop was a superior conjunction of Venus rather than an inferior conjunction now seems unlikely. The interval from 9 Ik 5 Mol to 9 Ik 15 Ceh is (346,840 days). This is 593 x 583.92 days, with a remainder of 575.44 days. A difference of 8.5 days is about equal to a Mesoamerican interval of disappearance at inferior conjunction. DHK thinks that the 575-day interval may have been designed to represent an interval of reappearance at inferior conjunction to a disappearance at inferior conjunction; there is, however, no textual support for this view, and alternatively, a small error in the Maya calculation of the synodic period could account for the 8-day deficit.

Kelley's interpretation of the Madrid date as a calculating base before the Maya era is rejected by Robert Hall (1989-1993), who, however, accepts the basic idea. He suggests that 13 Ahau 13 Cumku was not the katun ending but a tun ending,, which was, in the 584,283 (Thompson) correlation, 12 April 412 Gregorian. There was no conjunction on 12 Lamat 1 Pop preceding, but there was one 12 days after that date on 11 Ahau 13 Pop, which was 9 May 411 a.d. This is the date of 1st zenith passage of the Sun at Tikal, and Sun-Moon-Venus-Jupiter and Saturn were all in conjunction and Mercury was nearby. DHK is willing to accept the possibility that back-calculations from a historic period conjunction were involved, but not that the reference in Madrid is to the date.

Figure 12.9 shows a rollout drawing of the Vase of the Seven Gods with the CR date 4 Ahau 8 Cumku, which corresponds with the Maya era base (Coe 1973, pp. 106-109). The god most prominently featured on this pot (God 1 in the labeling of Coe 1973, pp. 106-109), identified as God L (in the notation of Schellas 1904), equated to Saturn by Kelley, is seated on a jaguar throne with a 9-sky glyph in his head-dress and with a bundle inscribed cab, "earth" (written phonetically), behind his back. Two other bundles are marked with "star-earth" glyphs and a prefix that suggests both the number 9 and the water prefix often found with "star-earth." Facing him are six other gods. Coe has labeled them as follows:

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