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Small, perhaps seasonal sites, near Elkab.

Domestication of plants and animals.

Farming communities with animals and pottery in SW delta;the Fayum, and Upper Egypt, near Asyut.

Badari farming community;grave goods of copper, black-topped red pottery, rings, and beads; Amratian, Naqada I: bricks, clay ivory figurines, white incised pottery (plus older red pottery).

Gerzean, Naqada II: densely packed towns;use of inlay;finely wrought flint, ivory, and bone implements. Walled towns: Naqada, Hieraconpolis. Painted motifs in tombs.

Merger of local kingdoms to form unified state. Earliest Dynastic Period. Writing appears.

Eight kings buried at Abydos. Memphis founded. Royal burials at Saqqara (Memphis) and at Abydos;Temple enclosures of brick;massive tombs;Step Pyramid of Netjerkhet ("Djoser") later celebrated as work of Imhotep, first minister of the king. Worship of the sun god, Ra; large-scale reliefs of king performing rites.

Pyramids at Gizeh, Meidum, Dahshur;Royal sun temples at Abusir, Abu Gurab;Saqqara pyramids with Pyramid Texts.

Decans;Charts on coffin lids.

Sothic date 1872 b.c., year 7 of reign of Sesostris III.

Invasion of "Hyksos" (heqa-khesut) people in delta.

Expulsion of Hyksos by Ahmose I. Sothic date 1537 b.c., year 9 of Amenhotep I. Sothic date 1462-1465 b.c., in reign of Thutmose III. Star clocks in tombs of Ramses VI, VII, and IX.

Fragmentation;invasions. Esarhaddon captures Memphis in 671 B.c.;Assyrians under Ashurbanipal sack Thebes and occupy Lower Egypt.

Assyrian governor becomes king;defeated by Nebuchadnezzar in 605 B.c.;defeated and occupied by Persians under Cambyses in 525 B.c.;Persian rule ended by Alexander, 332 b.c. Alexandria becomes cultural (and astronomical) center.

Alexandrian library destroyed in Arab conquest. Coptic religion survives in minority status.

Even in ancient times, the region beyond the fertile belt beside the Nile was desert waste. The Sun and the other retinue of heaven traveled across this belt from east to west. This cruciform paradigm (John Romer 1981, pp. 12, 21) is seen copied in the great temples, including what must be one of the largest temple and religious edifices in the world, the temple of Amon Re (or Amen-Ra among several variants) at Karnak.

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