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a Yi et al. (1986, p. 30) cite bie or "river turtle" as an alternative mansion but one based on a confusion in the literature with "river turtle" in CrA. b Later sources exclude Vega as naksatra, making 27.

could relate the whole system of xiu. The menazil transliterations are from Ginzel (1906) and the identifications from that source and from Moran and Kelley (1969).

Systems closely based on the Chinese were used in Japan and Korea. The Indian system was adopted in Tibet from which it passed to Mongolia and was also present throughout southern India and southeast Asia. The Hindu system was also adopted by medieval Jewish scholars, from which it spread to Christian Europe—a striking exception to the usual pattern of Arab influence. The Arab version went wherever Islam went, including deep into Africa, where an interesting Hausa version can be found. The earlier relationships among these systems, and with the Greco-Coptic system and an Iranian system, are much more obscure. A small minority of scholars interested in the lunar mansions maintains that the Chinese and Indian traditions, at least, arose independently, but it is generally thought that all the systems have a common origin. The strongest support for this view lies in shared asterisms, particularly those of 5th and 6th magnitude stars and asterisms, such as Vega, that were far removed from either ecliptic or equator. There are also a few correspondences in nomenclature; the most clearcut example is that of Antares, known as the "heart" of the Scorpion in the Arab system, of the Dragon in the Chinese system. The Chinese lunar mansion niu, "ox," (originally, Vega) agrees with "ox" as the representation (although not the name) of the first Jain lunar mansion (Vega). An important structural characteristic is the existence of paired mansions, particularly those of the Great Square (involving a and b Peg in one mansion and a And and g Peg in another), in the Greco-Coptic, Arab, Sogdian, Hindu, Jain, and Chinese lists.

There is, unfortunately, no fully adequate evidence of the place of origin and only roundabout and inconclusive

Table 15.3. Junction and determining stars of the lunar mansions.

Naksatra

Junction star

Xiu

Determining star

(27) Asvini

b Ari

Lou

b Ari

(28) Bharani

41 Ari

Wei

41 Ari

(1) Krttika

h Ari

Mao

h Tau

(2) Rohini

a Tau

Bi

e Tau

(3) Mrgasiras

l Ori

Zi

l Ori

(4) Ardra

a Ori

Shen

e Oria

(5) Punarvasu

b Gem

Jing

m Gem

(6) Pusya

s Cnc

Gui

0 Cnc

(7) Aslesa

a Cnc

Liu

8 Hya

(8) Magha

a Leo

Xing or Qi Xing

a Hya

(9) Purva-Phalguni

8 Leo

Zhang

m Hya

(10) Uttara-Phalguni

b Leo

Yi or I

a Crt

(11) Hasta

8 Crv

Chen

g Crv

(12) Citra

a Vir

Jiao

a Vir

(13) Svati

a Boo

Kang

K Vir

(14) Visakha

a Lib

Di

a2 Lib

(15) Anradha

8 Sco

Fang

p Sco

(16) Jyestha

a Sco

Xin

s Sco

(17) Mula

l Sco

Wei

m Sco

(18) Purvasadha

8 Sag

Ji

g Sag

(19) Uttarasadha

a Sag

Dou

f Sag

(20) Abhijitb

0 0

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