Oj Vo Oj

discussed in §12.23). The structure of the Dresden eclipse table (§12.9) would fit calculations from the spring equinox to the winter solstice, and the sequence of 25 pairs of deities in the Borgia codex seems designed to go from spring equinox to fall equinox (see §12.15). The winter solstice calculations in the Vienna codex (§12.14) are equally important indicators of interest in the relationship of the Ty and the Mesoamerican calendar. The reference to the day 2 Deer of the year 13 Rabbit in the Vienna codex is paralleled by a reference to the same date as one of a series of Ty stations in the Nuttall codex (§12.19).

DHK thinks that comparable interest in the Ty is indicated by many Mayan calculations, especially a considerable number of long calculations that seem to refer to periods of 29 CR, or multiples thereof (e.g., 29 x 18980 = 1508 Mys ~ 1507 Ty). The most convincing series of dates suggesting the count of the Ty is found in Palenque, where a count proceeds from the Mayan era base to 13.0.1.9.2 13 Ik tun Mol and then to three dates (discussed previously) associated with the birth of the gods at

The interval from 13 Ik tun Mol to 1 Ahau 13 Mac is 274,938d = 752 Ty 276d, the 276 days corresponding to an interval between spring equinox and winter solstice. In 753 Ty, the Maya year (365 days) will have advanced halfway around the tropical year (~182 days) because the accumulation of the excess of the tropical year over the Mesoamerican year (0.2422 days) in 753 Ty amounts to nearly half a Ty. The date 1.18.5.4.0 1 Ahau 13 Mac, in turn, is exactly twice 29 CR, or 3016 My = 3014Ty before the date 9.11.3.2.0 1 Ahau 13 Mac, which fell in the 52nd year of Pacal, King of Palenque, during the lifetime of his son, Chan Bahlum, who erected monuments giving these dates. Thus, the births of the gods were assigned to Mayan years, in which the Mayan dates fall in the same tropical year positions they occupied when the monuments were erected, and halfway around the My from where they were at the beginning of the Mayan era. This circumstance was first pointed out by Bowditch and amplified by Spinden, who identified the base of the upper line of dates in the Dresden codex Venus table as 9.11.3.2.0 1 Ahau 13 Mac (see §12.7). This date, in turn, is 100Ty 3.78d before 9.16.4.10.8 12 Lamat 1 Muan, the eclipse table base. If 1 Ahau 13 Mac coincided with winter solstice, as the calculation would suggest, then 9.9.9.16.0 1 Ahau 18 Kayab, the base of the Venus table, would have been about 4 days after spring equinox. Of course, the two table bases could be brought in step if 1 Ahau 13 Mac were put 4 days off the solstice, but the calculation involving 1 Ahau 13 Mac seems to be directly involved with the tropical year, whereas 1 Ahau 18 Kayab and 12 Lamat 1 Muan are table bases for other phenomena that the Maya may have been trying to tie to the tropical year. See the discussion of the Dresden codex Serpent Numbers (§12.18), in which an interval of 20 x 29 CR (30,140Ty) may be tied to the normal Mayan era base. Kelley (1983, pp. 180-181, Table 6.3) shows how various dates that may be tied to equinoxes and solstices appear in various correlations.

It seems difficult to think that these long calculations about the tropical year were tied to dates other than equinoxes or solstices, but it should be emphasized that no correlation that puts these dates near an equinox or solstice can also be in touch with the modern Mesoamerican calendar with any precision.15 It is of interest to note that the two monuments at Uaxactun that furnish the sighting line for the famous equinoctial alignment at that site are as close to spring equinoxes as any Baktun date in the Classic period can be, if 9.11.3.2.0 is a winter solstice, and that they are separated by the minimum baktun interval, which can restore a date to nearly the same position in the tropical year.

There were, of course, substantial connections between the tropical year, the 365-day year, and the 360-day year. This is emphasized by the 5-day period at the end of the 365-day year, which is counted and yet somehow outside the year. The principal god associated with the year was the Sun god. The gods of the 5-day period outside the year, the uayeb, were opossums. They are equated with Mams, the ancestral gods and, in some areas, mountain gods. As an individual deity, Mam is sometimes regarded as evil, and sometimes as beneficent. The same ambiguity attends opossums and the four Bacabs with whom the opossums also seem sometimes to be associated (Kelley 1976, pp. 119,177). In the Mixtec and Borgia-group codices, the opossum frequently accompanies the Moon goddess. For an extensive discussion of opossum myths, including associations with Venus, Jupiter, and the Moon, see Munn (1984).

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