Xii

Addaru

(6. Adar)

a The Arabic numbers preceding the Hebrew months indicate the order in the civil calendar;the sacred calendar is indicated by the Roman numerals. In some years, an intercalary month was added after month VI or month XII ("second Ululu" or "second Addaru");the counterpart of the latter in the Hebrew calendar was Veadar. See van der Waerden (1974, pp. 47-48) for historical details of the Babylonian intercalation.

a The Arabic numbers preceding the Hebrew months indicate the order in the civil calendar;the sacred calendar is indicated by the Roman numerals. In some years, an intercalary month was added after month VI or month XII ("second Ululu" or "second Addaru");the counterpart of the latter in the Hebrew calendar was Veadar. See van der Waerden (1974, pp. 47-48) for historical details of the Babylonian intercalation.

According to Morgenstern (1935), the calendar was borrowed during the Babylonian exile, between about 450 and 419 b.c., and first came into regular use, in existing materials, in the writings of Nehemiah. The beginning of the Babylonian civil year occurred in the lunar month Nissanu, around the date of the March equinox. The Jewish year evolved somewhat, under the influence of Babylon, into a luni-solar calendar, using true lunations,6 and between 400 and 250 b.c. (according to Morgenstern 1935, pp. 103-104) probably involved the Metonic cycle of intercalations. It replaced an earlier solar calendar, borrowed from the Canaanites, which began the year on the September equinox. For a time, the Jews adopted the Babylonian beginning point of the year near the March equinox with the month Nisan/Nissanu but eventually returned to a beginning point near the September equinox, which corresponds to the Babylonian month Tasrltu, hence, the Civil vs. Sacred numbering of the months in Table 7.3. Morgenstern (1935) discusses at length the impact of the various calendars on the celebration of festivals and associated religious ideas.

The temple at Jerusalem, built during the period when the Canaanite calendar was in use, was constructed so that at the equinoxes, "the first rays of the rising sun shone straight through the eastern gate of the temple at Jerusalem, opened at this specific moment, and down into the long axis of the temple into the ... holy of holies at its western end" (Morgenstern 1935, p. 5; see also Josephus, Antiquities, Book VIII, Ch. III, §2). Josephus (The Jewish War, Williamson tr., rev. by Smallwood, 1981, pp. 305, 449) refers to the elaborate vestments worn by the high priest when he entered the innermost shrine, once a year—alone—on the Day of Atonement. The high priest's ephod, a breastplate-like garment, was secured by golden brooches in which were set large sardonyxes (engraved with the names of the 12 tribes of Israel) on one side and on the other, 12 additional, named

6 Psalm 104:19: "Thou hast made the moon to mark the seasons;the sun knows its time for setting."This psalm has affinities with Ikhnaton's hymn to the sun (Chase 1962; and §8), but its date of composition is unknown because not all the Psalms were composed by David, and their origins may extend over 800 years to the post-exilic period (Schonfield 1962, pp. 125-126).

precious stones, each of which refers to a tribe of Israel.7 Josephus (Antiquities, Book III, Ch. VIII, §9) asserts that the one of [the sardonyxes] shined out when God was present at their sacrifices, I mean that which was in the nature of a button on the right shoulder, bright rays darting out thence and being seen even by those that were most remote; which splendour yet was not before natural to the stone.

Lockyer (1894/1964, pp. 92-93) seems to suppose that this statement refers to Solomon's temple, but in fact, Josephus is writing about the priesthood and the tabernacle instituted by Moses. Josephus (Antiquities, Book III, Ch. VI, §3) asserts that Moses set the front of the tabernacle to the east so that "when the sun arose, it might send its first rays upon it."

Many Hellenized Jews apparently identified Jehovah with the Sun (Campbell 1964/1970, pp. 274-275), but the drama and imagery of dawn sunlight may well have had more ancient roots. Of further interest are Josephus's (Antiquities, Book III, p. 304) statements about the temple: that the "seven lamps branching off from the lampstand symbolized the planets," "the twelve loaves on the table the Zodiac circle and the year," and that "worked into the [two-story embroidered Babylonian] tapestry was the whole vista of the heavens except for the signs of the Zodiac." In the Antiquities (Book III, Ch. VII, §7), Josephus asserts that when Moses ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets, of which that is the number.

Clearly, Josephus is attempting to provide a Hellenized, if somewhat confused, rationale for the sacred numbers.8 Such Hellenistic, syncretic thinking is reflected in the symbology of amulets and charms in the Greco-Roman period (Good-enough 1953-1968) and appears clearly on a mosaic floor of the synagogue of Beth Alpha. Here, we see the chariot of the Sun, the 12 zodiacal figures, the four winds, a series of nine figures, mostly animals, a second series of 12, mostly

7 In the Antiquities (Whiston tr., Book III, Ch. VII, §5), Josephus describes the priest's vestments in the time of Moses as being somewhat different. The sardonyxes were on each shoulder, and the other stones were inserted in the breastplate proper, in four rows of three stones each, according to the description. Josephus's statement is that the stones "stood in three rows, by four in a row"; compare to Exodus 28:17-21 and 39:10-14: And they set it in four rows of stones: the first row was a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this was the first row. (Ex 39:10). The Exodus accounts also say that each of the 12 stones was inscribed with the name of a tribe of Israel, but identifications are not made, and, indeed, the identifications of the Hebrew names for the precious stones are far from certain in many cases.

8 The more complete statement of the divisions of the "candlestick" is given in Josephus, Ch. VI, §7: "It was made with its knops, and lilies, and pomegranates, and bowls (which ornaments amounted to seventy in all;) by which the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base, and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets, including the sun among them. It terminated in seven heads, in one row, all standing parallel to one another; and these branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imitation of the number of the planets."

geometric, figures (for the 12 tribes?), and, at the top, a representation of the high altar, with two seven-branched candelabras.

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