Time Change and Gauge

The interpretive problems of gauge theory take on their most pathological form in the context of the problem of time.200 I will argue that this problem is essentially the hole argument focused upon the Hamiltonian, rather than the diffeomorphism constraint. I therefore respond to the problem in much the same way as I responded to the hole argument: a non-reductive gauge invariant conception of observables coupled with structuralism. My two aims in this chapter are (1) to disentangle the debate between substantivalists and relationalists from the problem of time201 and (2) to defend a structuralist resolution of the problem of time (and, therefore, to defend structuralism itself, in virtue of its 'good deeds'). The final chapter will then defend the structuralist account further.

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