Extracting a Spectrum from an Image

Raw spectrum images must be dark-subtracted and, with objective-prism and grating-prism spectrographs, flat-fielded before further processing. For the best signal-to-noise ratio, the master dark frame should be averaged or medianed from multiple darks. To further increase the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple spectrum images can be stacked, providing that the spectrum falls in exactly the same location in every image.

With slit- and fiber-fed spectrographs, you should obtain wavelength and flux calibration spectra. Wavelength calibrations are often done using neon and ar-


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