These should be instantly recognizable as variants on the embossing operator. In each case, H detects horizontal edges and V detects vertical edges. To detect edges at all orientations, H and Vare computed separately and then combined qua-dratically: / = Jh^ + F2 . The output, /, is always positive because H and V are squared when they are combined.

Two of the eight orientations possible for each kernel are shown. In the remaining six orientations, the outer row of elements is shifted around the kernel. To detect edges with specific desired orientations, you must select the kernel that most closely matches the desired orientation of the features sought.

The images produced by edge detection algorithms usually require further

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