Habitation ergonomics and ecology

Similarly, in the design of habitats for the Moon, Mars, or other planets, planners must follow sound guidelines for space ergonomics and ecology. When architect Constance Adams set out to design such an installation by using inflatables, she collected data about personal habits and socialization patterns of astronauts and cosmonauts actually living aloft. She called this socio-ergonomic analysis, a way of understanding how in closed habitats, members of a group behave as if they were a single...

B3 Lunar Solar Power System Proposal

The Criswell Waldron concept as reviewed at numerous scientific gatherings worldwide utilizes solar power for the benefit of earthlings, as illustrated in Exhibit 148. A mature system would channel tens of terawatts of free and pure energy, using proven basic technology with passive and low-mass equipment. Further details are presented below in Exhibit 149 on lunar solar power in terms of the major elements involved, their function and advantages, as well as the specific challenges related to...

Conclusion on Asian space vision and ethos

The scope of interest in space technology has risen dramatically among Oriental peoples in the last decade. Given Japan's past economic and technical leadership, one would expect it to be pre-eminent in this regard in the region. But, as far back as 1976, Indonesia became the first Asian country to enter the domestic satellite era when it acquired the U.S.-built Palapa system today with over 40 ground stations, it provides communication links for 3,000 islands over 5,000 km of ocean. The...

Lunar Economic Development Authority LEDA proposal

To meet the need for an interim regime to develop a twin Earth-Moon economy, the co-founders of United Societies in Space conceived a strategy based on an existing model the Tennessee Valley Authority and the many port authorities around the world (see Section 7.2.2). The entity was called the Lunar Economic Development Authority, and could be a quasi-public or private or combined corporation 25 . For those objecting to the term authority, other words could be substituted, such as corporation,...

References

Spacefaring The Human Dimension. Berkeley, CA University of California Press, 2001, pp. xi xiii. 2 Hardy, D. A. and Moore, P. Futures 50 Years in Space, The Challenge of the Stars. New York HarperCollins, 2005 Zimmerman, R. Leaving Earth Space Stations, Rival Superpowers, and the Quest for Interplanetary Travel. San Diego, CA UNIVELT Joseph Henry Press, 2003. 3 Bullock, A. and Stallybrass, O. (eds.) The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. New York Harper & Row, 1977. 4...

Lunar enterprises and development

Of all the sites in the Solar System, the Moon is the most logical first place to establish a permanent offworld human settlement. Why Because it is nearby less than three days with existing propulsion technology. It has a wealth of resources that can be used to support a broad range of human activities from science and engineering to commerce and tourism. It has an abundant continuous, and virtually unlimited supply of solar energy. It offers the opportunity for a greatly expanded program of...

C5 Conclusions

In summary, the principal lesson to learn is that space commerce is a business, and should be pursued as a business. Passion and vision are useful, but only if they are tempered by a willingness to recognize the realities of the business environment within which the organization operates. Firms managed by individuals with strong backgrounds in business are also more likely to succeed for this reason. Firms managed by engineers tend to get too focused on the technology of the projects they are...

B1 Introduction

Since the 1960s, extensive lunar studies have been under way by both Russian and American scientists, first in conjunction with the Lunik and Apollo missions, and now with the Vision for Space Exploration national policy in the 21st century. Adjoining NASA's Johnson Space Center, the Lunar and Planetary Institute has continued further research, conferences, and publications on the Moon and its resources 1 . NASA and ESA have had numerous conferences and publications on this matter, providing...

Reeducation of humanity

Today earthkind is still terrestrially oriented, and only a minority of the world's population comprehend why and where we should be going beyond this planet. Gaining national and international consensus to support such space visions and ventures as pictured above is a cultural problem. Implementing plans for the purpose implies innovative approaches to space management, such as discussed here. Why we are so timid in carrying out the Commission's bold recommendations has been well expressed by...

ISS finished product

In 2008, JAXA's Experimental Logistics Pressurized Module was installed on ISS. This Kibo (meaning hope in Japanese) laboratory and storage unit is part of the Japan Experiment Module or JEM, that will permit external research experiments at the station. RSC Energia is constructing a multipurpose research laboratory for Russia's Federal Space Agency it is to be launched on a Proton rocket for ISS installation by the end of 2008. Because of the multiple hazards this orbiting platform could...

Book stores online with astronauticsspace volumes for purchase Astrobookscom

(www.astrobooks.com) Buy Books on the web.com (www.bbotw.com or www.buy booksontheweb, e.g., Launch Out, a space novel by P. R. Harris) Microcosm Press (www.home.earthlink.net microcosm) Boggs Space Books, new and used on the history of space exploration (www.boggsspace.com). Columbia House Producers of videos, DVDs, and CDs (e.g., HBO's From Earth to the Moon mini series of six video cassettes 1-800 538-7766 or www.columbiahouse.comvl). Elsevier Science Ltd. Publishes journals Acta...

Conclusions On Space Personnel Deployment And Tourism

If space habitation is to advance rapidly, then a more comprehensive system approach to personnel deployment would seem to be appropriate. The model described in this presentation offers components which could be utilized in this decade for analysis of the wintering-over experience in Antarctica. Furthermore, knowledge from such an Antarctic Personnel Deployment System would be directly transferable in the next decades for creation of comparable deployment systems for orbiting stations, as well...

Entrepreneurial view on space access [17

Currently, there is a difference of opinion on how to lower the cost of space access, and who should pay for it. The debate was evident among space advocates attending the National Space Society's International Space Development Conference in 2006. NewSpace entrepreneurs like Peter Diamandis and Burt Rutan are prepared to go it alone with just private investments, whether from billionaires, venture capital, or private equity funds. In fact, Rutan, designer and builder of SpaceShipOne, contends...

C1 Dawn Of The Spage

Entrepreneurs have a long association with the development of space. The first efforts to develop practical reusable rockets date to rocket mail ventures in the 1920s and 1930s. However, neither the technology nor markets were right for space commerce, so space quickly became a government activity, first in Germany, then in the United States and Russia. But the dream of space enterprise never faded and one of President's Kennedy's goals in his famous speech on national space goals (May 1961)...

Toward a global space vision ethos and enterprise

Yet the greatest revelation that has emerged from space research and exploration one that lies at the heart of every scientific endeavour is that the Universe is knowable. And we have begun to know it The 20th century closed with an orbiting space station, a near comprehensive tour of the solar system, and the discovery of the fifth force in nature an inflationary Universe and awareness of more planets outside our solar system than within. We have begun to know the workings of our own planet,...

Learning from organizational setbacks

All human systems are subject to failures, so it is important to learn from such setbacks, so as to avoid their replication. Culture is a helpful coping tool in this regard, a means for adaptation and improvements. As a case for learning, consider the flaws in NASA's culture highlighted in two monumental reports of external experts analyzing the causes of the horrific Shuttle losses Challenger and Columbia. Both investigations underscored the failure of mission managers to recognize dangers...

Culture A Coping Strategy

Culture is a unique human capacity a coping ability of Homo sapiens to the environment which facilitates daily living. Consciously or unconsciously, groups transmit Exhibit 44. EVA we are no longer earthbound Untethered astronaut with a mobile power pack during extravehicular activity in orbit. Homo spatiaiis is emerging Source NASA Johnson Space Center. Exhibit 44. EVA we are no longer earthbound Untethered astronaut with a mobile power pack during extravehicular activity in orbit. Homo...

Ll References

1 The Global Exploration Strategy, The Framework for Coordination. London British National Space Centre, 2007-06-l8 (BNSC Press Release 3l.05.07 entitled New Era for Space Exploration as l4 Space Agencies Take Historic Step'' www.bnsc.gov.uk home) For multicultural challenges, see Simons, G. F. Eurodiversity A Business Guide to Managing Differences. Burlington, MA Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. 2 Elder, D. C. and James, G. S. History of Rocketry and Astronautics, Vol. 26. San Diego, CA...

Cosmic Cultures

James Grier Miller

Presently, there are two schools of thought concerning extraterrestrials (1) eventually we will encounter other species and cultures within the vast universes or (2) humans will evolve into these diverse ETs with their unique cultures, beginning on the Moon and Mars. The scientists and supporters of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) of Mountain View, California, take the former position (www.teamseti.org) 22 . Annually, they have brought together space scholars and enthusiasts...

Space entrepreneurialism

Many nations through their space agencies, such as ESA and RKA, have done studies and reports on the importance of involving the private sector in their space programs. The major point was to convince taxpayers and business leaders that what happens up there'' has not only direct benefits down here'' but that there is also commercial opportunity offworld One such attempt to influence national space policy and the public's mindset occurred when NASA gave a grant for this purpose to the National...

Emerging Space Settlement Issues

The above section indicates only some of the challenges that lie ahead with reference to permanent space habitation. To elaborate on these issues for continuing research, consider (a) Relations among crews of diverse composition on long-term flights. Although there has been much study to date in the field of group dynamics, some of it directed toward life in confined quarters of submarines, there has been little transfer of this information and insight to the study of team behavior among...

Space education

The next generation must be prepared to face offworld challenges, for it is their future In this book, I have referred many times to space education as it is being pursued in colleges and universities, particularly through the Universities Space Research Association and the International Space University. There are now many youth space camps and schools and prototypes of programs, like the Challenger Centers for Space Science Education, all of which need to be expanded globally. However, there...

Correspondence Between Cultures Or Subcultures And Subspecies Of A Single Species

Partial isolation of subspecies cellulation Cross-breeding through migration and Partial isolation of cultures cellulation Cross-breding through diffusion of ideas, Source Gerard, R. W. Kluckholm, C. and Rapoport, A. Biological and Cultural Evolution Some Analogies and Explorations,'' Behavioral Science, 1(1), January 1956, 6-34. Again we turn to Harper's Dictionary for insight into this discipline While anthropology in the past centered its studies around evolution, embracing the biological,...

Space Is A Place For Synergy

Obviously, the vastness, complexity, and costs of exploring the space frontier call for synergy as an integral norm of human behavior. Space technologies were spawned toward the end of the Industrial Age, a period of rugged individualism and aggressive competition, especially at the national level. Yet, the success of the Apollo missions and lunar landings proved the effectiveness of collaboration between NASA personnel and aerospace contractors, as well as with university consultants. Space...

Improving orbital performance

In several volumes produced by the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger, there are also recommendations to improve personnel performance in the space program, both on the ground and in orbit. Two areas of the report underscore the above astronaut observations, namely management and safety. The Commission's proposed reforms adopted after endorsement by three generations of astronauts include 15 more access for the crew to flight decision-makers regarding spacefarer feedback,...

The strategy of space authorities

Although your author believes that to further human enterprise in space, a viable solution to this challenge is to establish space authorities, now for the Moon, and eventually for Mars, and other planets, as well as for stations and platforms in orbit, even asteroids. It is a way to use our interplanetary common'' for the benefit of earthkind in the 21st century 31 . Then, we would put institutions in place to empower scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, or settlers to go aloft and utilize...

Mini case study evolution of the International Space Station

Visionaries have dreamed and written of housing people on islands in the sky for centuries. Wernher von Braun, who began the Space Age from Peenemunde on the Baltic coast of Germany on October 3, 1942 with the launching of the first rocket to reach space (an early V-2), wrote over 50 years ago in Colliers magazine about future orbiting stations and platforms. This great rocket scientist actually designed a demonstration model, a 77-meter diameter wheel which was to become immortalized in the...

China Space Program Expulsion From International

An ancient nation whose lore of Moon travel and experiments with rockets go back many centuries. In the 16th century, the Chinese inventor Wan Hu built and tested a rocket-propelled chair which launched him into fiery oblivion As China becomes a major economic superpower in the 21st century, its space ambitions and activities expand 37 . Exhibit 11 is one indication of the People's Republic of China's sophistication in space technology. In the 20th century, despite a civil war and cultural...

Sociology And Space Habitation

One recommendation of the National Commission on Space's report in 1986 advocated building institutions and systems that make accessible vast space resources and support human settlements beyond Earth orbit, from the highlands of the Moon to the plains of Mars. But, Professor Ben Finney believes that this demands planning for social organizations in space. Gerald Carr, commander of the 84-day Skylab mission, has gone on record that he expects that ''the sociological problems will prove to be...

A4 Space Governance Preliminary Conclusions

Space governance in the 21st century will reflect legal regimes incorporating values essential for the success of private commercial endeavors in space, as well as governmental public responsibilities offworld in both domestic and international contexts. Governance of space societies will reflect both old principles of economic imperialism from our past, as well as economic and fiscal principles of a steadily evolving and unifying form of transglobalism. In the future, perhaps some form of a...

France

The Committee for Space Research was organized in 1959, followed by the formation of the National Center for Space Studies (CNES) in 1962. Twenty-three years later the nation's space agency got a modern headquarters in the Ranguil suburbs of the medieval city of Toulouse where French aerospace industry and schools were also located. Finally, a Directorate General for Space was established in 1988 within the Ministry for Post, Telecommunications, and Space In 1965, France became the third...

B2 Rationale For A Lunar Solar Power System Lsps

The advantages of this innovative solar energy system over conventional power are summarized in Exhibit 144. Looking along its last row, the case for lunar power is highlighted as follows 10 offers maximum useful power level of > 100,000 GW developing this lunar resource may require 10-20 years for R& D to produce an almost endless supply of energy its only limiting factor appears to be stray microwaves, while producing no pollution high upfront initial investment, but long-term cost...

D10 Role Of Nurses In A Future Lunar Settlement

In an address to SNS members in 2001, space psychologist Dr. Philip Harris explored these ideas concerning the probable role of space nurses in a lunar colony. Nurses aloft will have to be multitalented, carrying out other work assignments aloft. Beside exercising their usual professional skills, he envisioned high-performing nurses enhancing the lunar dweller's sense of self and wellness by furtherance of interpersonal and family relations on the Moon promoting unique communication and...

Macrothinking Examples From The Past

Macrothinking has been carried out by Homo sapiens since our ancestors climbed down from the trees and walked upright. Even hunters and gatherers demonstrated macrothinking in the way they migrated across the planet. The story of civilization contains numerous examples of large-scale engineering projects, beginning with the agricultural period of human development and the need for infrastructure. Over millennia, history records macrothinking feats in building the walls of Jericho, beautiful...

First Millennial Foundation

Macrothinking at its best is evident in the work of another Colorado visionary, Marshall T. Savage, and his colleagues. This non-profit foundation believes that there is a cosmic imperative to colonize space which will lead to a dramatic explosion in economic growth and creation of unlimited sources of new wealth. Founded in 1994, the First Millennial Foundation (FMF) has core members who have evolved a step-by-step strategy for this purpose, publishing First Foundation News and New Millennium...

Future space administration and governance

The global space community is gradually recognizing that some type of international jurisdiction or entity has to be created to manage and coordinate international enterprises offworld. Again, there has been no serious discussions, even within the United Nations and aerospace associations, as to what form this new legal body Exhibit 120. Interagency space agreements SOHO. This is an artist's depiction of this solar observatory that resulted from a legal agreement between ESA and NASA. It was...

Conclusions about North American space vision and ethos

The United States, like its neighbors Canada and Mexico, is still struggling to articulate its space vision and ethos in such a way as to gain mass public support for space exploration and development. To this end, government has established numerous studies, commissions, and even passed legislation to further space activities. Through its space agency, NASA, the United States has even undertaken some daring and technologically sophisticated space missions. By using mass communications and the...

Lunar base location and expansion

NASA, ESA, and other partners are conducting site searches for the best location of the initial outpost and or base on the lunar surface. Some consensus is building for the south pole near Malapert Mountain, but site confirmation will come after automated mapping missions are completed. Some planners favor a lunar lava tube site which offers radiation protection and a constant temperature environment. There is much continuing, unresolved discussion among the experts on the size, design, and...

Conclusions about Russian space vision and ethos

Seemingly, the old Soviet ethos regarding space eroded in the 1990s during the nation's transition to more democratic ways. In the beginnings of the more market-oriented Russia, if the price was right, everything was up for sale, including space artifacts. Mementos of space heroes were posthumously pressed into duty to sell cars the famous Cosmos Pavilion, a shrine of Soviet space feats, had been turned into a used-car lot in 1992, while the exhibit was closed for repairs. The Buran space...

Space entrepreneur analysis

Entrepreneurs, often working out of their garages, built the global, high-tech industries. And it appears now the same is happening with regard to space enterprise. Entrepreneurialism is a manifestation of the innate human sense of curiosity and discovery. In his book, The Discovers, historian Daniel Boorstin expressed admiration for the amateur or expert willing to try something new 7 Every true discoverer Challenges and realities in space enterprises 413 Exhibit 109. PRIVATE LAUNCH...

United Societies in Space

Outer Space Treaty (1967), this private initiative sought to confirm that outer space is indeed the common heritage of humankind''. Under the leadership of Colorado attorney, Declan J. O'Donnell, its primary goal is to settle Exhibit 95. Space peace symbol. The logo of United Societies in Space, Inc. (www.usis.org). The dove, symbol of peace, flies over our Solar System. Source USIS designer, Royal Publishing Company of Denver, Colorado. and populate the high frontier...

B6 References

W. (ed.) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Houston, TX Lunar Planetary Institute, 1985. 2 McKay, M. F. McKay. D. S. and Duke, M. B. (eds.) Space Resource. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992, 5 vols. (available now from www.univelt.com). 3 ESA Lunar Steering Committee Group, International Lunar Workshop Towards a World Strategy for the Exploration and Utilization of Our Natural Satellite. Paris European Space Agency, 1994 (ESA SP-1170)...

Nonliving Subsystems

Living System Miller

Source Miller, J. G. Applications of Living Systems Theory to Life in Space, Space Resources (NASA SP-509, Vol. 4, pp. 231-259). Illustration by Dennis M. Davidson. Exhibit 38. Space Station five living systems flows. Source Miller, J. G. Applications of Living Systems Theory to Life in Space, Social Concerns (Vol. 4, pp. 231-259) of Space Resources (NASA SP-509). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1992 (www. univelt.com). Illustrations by Dennis M....

Matrix management

Among the primary management innovations coming out of the Apollo space program some 40 years ago was the matrix organization, with its emphasis on dual reporting and team management. The adoption of this management approach was necessitated because of the complexity of mission tasks, and the inadequacy of traditional industrial age management. Then space contractor, TRW Systems of Redondo Beach, California, was a leader in a matrix-type management that two decades later would be a common...

C3 Orbital Sciences Corporation

Orbital Sciences (OSC) was founded on April 2, 1982 by three graduates of Harvard Business School, David Thompson, Bruce Ferguson and Scott Webster 10 . Their analysis of the environment for space commerce identified a different opportunity. Instead of focusing on development of a complete new launch system for commercial payloads, they identified a need created by the new Space Shuttle. The Space Shuttle was designed to replace the existing Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) in the launch of...

Space Habitability And Life Sciences

After a half century of space exploration, there is consensus among those who have been in orbit or studied microgravity that outer space is indeed a unique environment to live and work 6 . Some of the positive and negative aspects are reviewed in the next exhibit (first, refer back to Exhibit 16, and then go to Exhibit 26, above and opposite). Just remember that since 1961, only about 460 men and women have actually gone beyond Earth into outer space. So far they have represented some 40...

Japan

The origins of this nation's rocket program go back to the 1920s. The father of its space program'' was Hideo Itokawa, a professor at the Institute of Industrial Science, Tokyo University, who took the lead in development of its first rocket plane, and its first Pencil rocket in 1955. Since then Japan has become a leading spacefaring nation, having flown probes to the Moon, Mars, and comet Halley. Today, Japan has a single Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency formed in 2003. JAXA is responsible...

Prologue

Since the time our ancestors climbed down from trees and walked upright, the human species has always probed new frontiers Over three million years, we manifested this characteristic for exploration repeatedlyas when our early ancestors migrated from Africa across the planet, or when Europeans opened up the Pan American and African continents, or when Americans pushed across the Western frontier. With each terrestrial expansion, we created more sophisticated mental models of our world, more...

Biosphere 2 private enterprise

One of the most interesting, comprehensive, and longest experiments in isolated, confined environments was conducted under private auspices in Oracle, Arizona (see Exhibit 77). Located in the American southwest near the foothills of Catalina Mountains on SunSpace Ranch, just 50 km north of Tucson, the enterprise was funded by Texas billionaire Ed Bass, a co-designer of Disney's Epcot Center. Under the name Space Biosphere Ventures, scientists, architects, ecotechnicians, and entrepreneurs put...

Russian Space Case Study

The International Space Year proved in 1992 to be a turning point in another way the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics imploded and collapsed as a political entity. It ended the Cold War and the Space Race between the superpowers (namely, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R). Certainly, both shared a position of space leadership, for the Soviets put the first satellite in orbit, as well as the first man and woman in space, amassing during their regime three times the manned time in space in contrast...

Conclusions On Global Space Vision Ethos And Enterprise

Humankind, whether in the East or in the West, senses that our species seems to be in an epochal transition to space-based living and creation of an entirely new space culture. Whether by manned or unmanned spacecraft, current generations are pushing back the high frontier, expanding ever farther into outer space for our descendants to inhabit. With the help of mass media, computers, and the Internet, more and more of this planet's peoples are beginning to appreciate its contributions to our...

The Antarctica Model vs terraforming

Presently, there is an international agreement for multinational bases on that continent for the purpose of scientific research 33 . Forty-five Antarctica signatories agreed to suspend territorial claims and disputes there, to forego all military and mining activity, to protect the environment, and to preserve the continent as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science''. That experience does provide an analog for humans who will be living and working on the Moon in somewhat comparable...

D9 A Visionary Nursing Leader Martha E Rogers

Rogers was not only a founding member of the Space Nursing Society, her research and writings originated the concept of nurses serving beyond Earth. A futurist, Dr. Rogers anticipated this development in the nursing profession and its specific challenges for the Space Nursing Society. She reminded nurses of the speed of accelerating change and its impact on human evolution, as well as the need to create an enhanced image of nursing. One that respects its nursing heritage for...

European isolation studies

There are numerous research endeavors under way in Europe relating to isolated, confined environments (ICEs) which provide insights for spacefaring 26 . One was a simulation experiment which took place in 1989 under the leadership of COMEX, a French diving company in Marseilles. With the participation of the European Space Agency (ESA), the study involved divers in a hyperbaric chamber. Another took place in the U.K. in conjunction with the JUNO mission to fly a British cosmonaut aboard the Mir...

Stage Three Inspace services

In-space services are the on-site support and monitoring of people in orbit, both physical and psychological, which is necessary for survival and mission accomplishment. Here is one current example of in-space services. On Father's Day (June 19, 2004), astronaut Michael Fincke was sitting 225 miles in orbit on the International Space Station. Down on Earth, his spouse Renita had just given birth to daughter Tarali in Clear Lake, Texas. NASA arranged a telephone and video link so the new...

E5 Ilo Lunar Location

Malapert Mountain Located about 122 kilometers from the lunar south pole, the adjacent mare plain just north of the 4.6-kilometer high Malapert Mountain is the intended landing region for the ILO. Near-constant sunlight (thought to be 89 full, 4 partial) provides an energy-rich environment, and the lunar peak enjoys a continuous line-of-sight to Earth and direct Earth-Moon communications. The mountain dominates its surrounding area for an excellent vantage point and is near enough to expected...

India

The people of India have been fascinated with spaceflight for centuries, for it is part of Hindu mythology ancient Sanskrit texts tell of a rocket ship, the Vamana which ascended to the heavens In the 18th century the reality of this emerged when Tippu Sultan of Mysore bombarded the British occupiers with rockets By 1957, a corps of Indian scientists under Vikram Sarabhai were engaged in studies of cosmic ray physics at Ahmedabad's Physical Research Laboratory (PRL). In 1962, Prime Minister...

Private Publicsector cooperation in space commerce

Just as the early days of shipping, railroading, and flying were dependent on government subsidy, so too is space commerce. Today governments in spacefaring nations support astrobusiness through research and operating grants, deferred payments of launch costs, tax and investment incentives, free or cut-rate spacecraft rides, patent rights on government-sponsored research, and incubator programs to facilitate the transfer of space technology to private enterprise. The legislation from Congress...

Al Beyond Imperialism Beyond Space Colonies

In the 21st century, human exploration of space, as well as human migration into and settlement of near and deep space, will offer an extraordinarily rare opportunity to sever the endless cycle in human history of economic and religious imperialism, colonialism, denial of basic human and humankind rights, and the subsequent violent confrontations that inevitably follow those practices. While global civilizations are acutely aware of the negative and even horrific aspects of traditional...

Ugeorge S Robinson Dcl is an Attorney at

Law, currently in commercial space law practice with his sons and daughter-in-law in Virginia and Maryland. Recently, he retired as associate general counsel of the Smithsonian Institution. His previous legal counsel services have included NASA as an International Relations Specialist, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the U.S. t. II I M Department of Transportation (Commercial Space Advisory Committee). Although his undergraduate studies were in biology and chemistry at Ql...

Lowering space transportation access costs

Rockets have been called dream machines because they became the means for humankind to leave the home planet and go offworld 15 . They went from dream to reality in the 20th century, but are still too expensive to build and operate if they are really to open the new frontier in this 21st century As long as getting payloads into orbit remains excessive costwise, space commerce and space settlement will be delimited. Presently, the Space Transportation System (STS) or Shuttle Orbiter costs...