C6 References

[1] Kennedy, John F. "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs,'' 1961 (retrieved July 30, 2007 from www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/ References + Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POFO3NationalNeeds525196.htm).

[2] Satellite Chronology, "Telstar," 2007 (retrieved from http///roland.lerc.nasa.gov/dglover/ sat/telstar.html).

[3] NASA History Division, "Communication Satellites: Making the Global Village Possible,'' 2007 (retrieved July 30, 2007 from http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/paoHistory/ satcomhistory.html).

[4] Space Services of America Records, 1979-1991 (retrieved October 1, 2007 from http:jj siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?uri = 3100001^!265546!0).

[5] Encyclopedia Astronautica, Percheron (retrieved August 10, 2007 from www.astronautix. comjlvsjpercheron.htm).

[6] Cushman, J. H. "Early Risks of Business in Space," New York Times, August 26, 1990 (retrieved September 7, 1970 from http:jjquery.nytimes.com/gstjfullpage.html?).

[7] Encyclopedia Astronautica, Conestoga, 1620 (retrieved August 10, 2007 from www. astronautix.comjlvsjconestoga).

[8] Butricia, A. J. "The Commercial Launch Industry, Reusuable Space Vehicles, and Technological Change" (retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.hnet.msu.edujbusinessj bchwebjpublicationsjBEHprint).

[9] Celestis Foundation, "About Us" (retrieved August 31, 2007 from www.memorialspace flights.comjasp).

[11] Company Histories, "Orbital Science Corporation" (retrieved August 31, 2007 from http:jjwww.fundinguniverse.comjcompany.action?sym = ORB).

[12] Company Information, Orbital Science Corporation (retrieved October 16, 2007 from http:jjwww.quote.comjstocksjcompany.action'?sym = ORB).

[13] Collins, J. Good is Great: Why Some Companies Make Long Leaps and Others Don't. Boulder, CO: Collins, 2001.

[14] See "Something New Under the Son: A Special Report on Innovation," The Economist, October 13th, 2007, 20-page insert (www.economist.comjspecial reports).


Dr. Peter Diamandis has forecast that the next race into space will be led by entrepreneurs, members of the private sector, who envision the high frontier as an opportunity for expansion and vast wealth creation. Some of these leaders have already emerged from among the new billionaires who benefited from high-tech innovations. Beside the NewSpace enterprises, many of the start-up companies will come out of the older aerospace technologies and corporations. Let us examine just one: XCOR Aerospace based at the Mojave Spaceport and Civilian Aerospace Test Center in California. It has improved on traditional rocket technology to create the EZ-Rocket for manned flying vehicles. Its engines are fueled with isopropyl alcohol and liquid oxygen. The alcohol is stored in an external composite fuel tank, and the LOX is contained in an insulated internal aluminum liquid oxygen tank. The EZ-Rocket is incorporated into XERUS, a multi-mission suborbital spacecraft with many safety features. Its pilots include Lt. Col. Dick Rutan (USAF Retd.), former NASA astronaut Richard Searfoss, and private astronaut Michael Melville. Founded in 1999, the company has become a leader in development of reliable, low-cost rocket engines and reusable launch vehicle technology. Its diverse team of aerospace builders innovate with rocket propulsion hardware systems. Its markets are servicing microgravity research, suborbital tourism, and microsatellite delivery to LEO. The business income comes from a mix of government and private contracts, as well as private investments (www.xcir.com).

Exhibit 152. Lunar medics. A health care team on the Moon as depicted by artist Pat Rawlings: space nurses in action aloft. Source: Center for Advanced Space Studies, Houston, TX.

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