Bibliography

'Deep Space 1 Spacecraft', noted in Spaceflight, 40, 352 (1998). Adams, C. S., Space Flight, McGraw-Hill, New York (1958). Beibruno, E., 'Through the Fuzzy Boundary A New Route to the Moon', The Planetary Report, 12, No. 3, 8-10 (1992). Beibruno, E. and Miller, J. K., 'Sun-Perturbed Earth-to-Moon Transfers with Ballistic Capture', Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 16, 770-776 (1993). Bernasconi, M. C. and Reibaldi, G. C., 'Inflatable Space-Rigidized Structures Overview of Applications...

Setisail And Astrosail Proposed Probes To The Suns Gravity Focus

In the late-1980s, Alenia Spazio - an aerospace company in Turin, Italy - proposed Quasat, an inflatable Earth-orbiting radio telescope. Although Quasat never flew, Claudio Maccone (a theoretical physicist associated with Alenia) has coordinated efforts to investigate extra-solar applications of Quasat inflatable technology. Starting in 1992, regular meetings have taken place in northern Italy to further investigate these ideas. Rather than particles, fields and astrometric measurements, Quasat...

The Difficulty Of Telescopic Exploration Of Neos Near Their Point Of Origin

As an alternative to robotic or human occupied exploratory missions to NEOs near their point of origin, we might consider remote exploration using terrestrial or Earth-orbiting telescopes. This is very difficult, as revealed by the following calculation. Since the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth per second per unit area (the solar constant) is about 1,400 Wm 2, the solar energy per second per square metre reaching a celestial object Rau from the Sun is about 1,400 R 2. If the object...

A5 Energymomentum Conservation In A Perfect Solar Sail

Sometimes, it is productive for practioners in newly emerging fields to review the fundamentals. Such a situation occurred during the summer of 2003 when a critique of the basic physics assumptions of solar sailing was issued on the Web by Cornell University astrophysicist Thomas Gold (http aexiv.org html physics 0306050 and 99993895). Events leading up to these Web publications are described by Louis Friedman of The Planetary Society Gold correctly pointed out that under somewhat reduced...

Of Worldships And Interstellar Arks

Protection from dust grain impacts and cosmic rays, and closed life support systems, are significant aspects of interstellar mission design, but they are certainly not sufficient in themselves. We must also consider the health of the human community on Habitat, which could be reconfigured as a board the interstellar craft, as the crew watches the Sun grow dimmer and dimmer astern of their lonely craft. How large a community of humans is necessary, and how big a ship is required to support them...

Nuclearpulse Propulsion Orion Daedalus And Medusa

NEP may never be capable of true interstellar flight. However, the same cannot be said for nuclear-pulse propulsion (NPP), which is illustrated in Figure 6.3. Project Orion - probably the first serious nuclear-pulse proposal - began its life in the early Space Age as a secret USAF project. It was later incorporated in NASA plans for the first Moon-landing missions, in case the Saturn V failed. Before its cancellation in the mid-1960s, several Orion prototypes were tested in the Earth's...

The Hydrogenfusing Interstellar Ramjet

The probable originator of the interstellar-ramjet concept is Robert Bussard, who published his provocative paper on the topic in I960. An illustration of Bussard's proposal is presented in Figure 8.1. A spacecraft equipped with a magnetic scoop (or ramscoop) moves through the interstellar medium. The scoop field collects interstellar ions (mostly protons), which Interstellar protons . collected by scoop field Interstellar protons . collected by scoop field Direction of spacecraft velocity and...

Starship Deceleration Using The Magsail

A potential method of starship deceleration that does not strain the limits of contemporary technology does, however, exist. The principle of this device - a form of magnetic braking called the 'magsail', - is illustrated in Figure 7.2. The magsail is derived from early approaches to the collection of fuel for interstellar ramjets, which are described in a following chapter. In 1974, Matloff and Fennelly suggested that the magnetic field generated by a superconducting solenoid could extend for...

Boilinghot Sea Zeropoint Energy And Special Relativistic Star Drives

As discussed by Henning Genz, the physical Universe seems to result from a stabilised quantum-level fluctuation in the underlying 'foam' of the universal vacuum. Empty space, at distances of about 10 35m, is a dynamic, 'boiling-hot sea' of particles constantly coming into and going out of existence, and enormous 'positive' energies exactly balanced by their 'negative' energy counterparts (so that the observed time-averaged effects are exactly zero). Something happened in the first instants of...

Holographic Message Plaques

The early development of this approach to interstellar message plaques is an example of the synergy of art and science. The process is outlined here and described in more detail by Matloff et al. (2002) and Matloff and Bangs (2002). In the summer of 2000, artist C. Bangs (who is married to author Gregory Matloff) curated an exhibition in conjunction with the Third IAA Symposium on Realistic Near-Term Advanced Scientific Space Missions, which was held in Aosta, Italy. Called 'Messages from...

Hibernation For Humans The Long Sleep To a Centauri

It would be ideal if humans were natural hibernators. But as reviewed by Mallove and Matloff (1989) in The Starflight Handbook, and by Mauldin (1992) in Prospects of Interstellar Travel, this is not the case. Also, cryogenic techniques that freeze a recently deceased organism to near-absolute zero are a good way to preserve dead meat, but methods of warming frozen brains back to room temperature without fatal brain cell crystallisation do not exist. But if it could be achieved in humans,...

Rocket History And Theory

The rocket has existed for a long time. The first reaction device may have been the tethered, steam-propelled 'wooden dove' of Archytas, which was constructed in what is now southern Italy, in about 360 BC. In about 50 BC, Hero of Alexandria constructed his famous steam-powered aeolipile, in which pressurised steam was vented from a tethered hollow sphere, causing rotation in a manner analogous to a lawn sprinkler. But these early models served mainly to demonstrate the action-reaction...

Shoes And Ships The Potential Of Magnetic Surfing

To reduce the amount of controversy surrounding breakthrough research, it would be an advantage to have some indication that such research might actually bear fruit. One method would be a simple demonstration that our concepts of physics - at least as far as they pertain to spacecraft propulsion - are less complete than commonly perceived. During the summer of 1999, while serving as a Faculty Fellow at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, I was part of a team that carried out such a...

Are Starships Detectable

Until humanity begins to construct its own large interstellar spacecraft, astronomers might investigate suspect objects remotely, to ascertain whether ET is operating near our Solar System. Although energetic antimatter starships are the most easily observed, even small probes can be detected under certain conditions. No attempt will be made here to discuss observable properties of breakthrough-physics starships propelled by spacetime warps or zero-point energy. This is not because such ships...

Probe To The Oort Cloud

If we take the ESLI carbon microtruss sail material considered for the heliopause sail to its thermal limits and unfurl the sail at a closer perihelion distance (0.02-0.03 AU) from the Sun's centre, the craft will be capable of performing a flight to 10,000 AU -well within the Oort Cloud - within a human lifetime. An exploratory mission of the near-Sun radiation and field environment (such as that suggested by McNutt Jr. et al. (1995)) is a necessary prelude to true interstellar solar sail...

The Lifetime Of A Planets Atmosphere

Nothing is forever - not even the atmosphere of a large planet. We can crudely estimate the lifetime of a constituent of a planet's atmosphere following the arguments of Jastrow and Rasool (1965), conservatively assuming that the interplanetary medium and asteroidal cometary impacts do not increase that constituent's atmospheric concentration after the planet's formation. We first define the scale height of the atmosphere in the exosphere (the boundary between the atmosphere and space) where k...

The Ramaugmented Interstellar Rocket

In principle, RAIR (which was suggested by Bond (1974) overcomes the problems of obtaining energy from the interstellar medium by utilising interstellar matter as reaction mass and carrying an on-board supply of readily fusable isotopes. As presented in Figure 8.3, RAIR is essentially a two-stream thermonuclear rocket such as those considered in Chapter 6, except that the nuclear-inert fuel component consists of interstellar protons. The linear momentum conservation equation for RAIR can be...

The Pioneer 1011 And Voyager 12 Message Plaques

Humanity's first galactic emissary, Pioneer 10, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on 3 March, 1972. Pioneer 10 and its sister ship Pioneer 11 were both directed towards the planet Jupiter and performed our first reconnaisance of the outer Solar System. As described by Sagan (1973), affixed to both craft were gold anodised aluminum plates with dimensions 15 x 22.5 cm. The message engraved on these plates, which is shown in Figure 14.1, was designed during a December 1971 meeting of the...

Environmental Obstacles To Interstellar Flight And Their Removal

One potential barrier to interstellar travel is interstellar dust. As a starship moves through the interstellar medium at speeds of 0.005 c or higher, even tiny dust grains have a large kinetic energy relative to the ship. Collisions with interstellar dust grains As reviewed by Chaisson and MacMillan's (1996) Astronomy Today, recent studies of the interstellar medium have demonstrated that typical interstellar dust grains have dimensions of 0.1-1 have average interstellar-medium densities of...

All Bibliography

Arnon, S., 'Power Versus Stabilization for Laser Satellite Communication', Applied Optics, 38, (1999). Autumn, K., Chang, W.-P., Fearing, R., Hsieh, T., Lenny, T., Liang, L., Zesch, W. and Full, R.J., 'Adhesive Force of a Single Gecko Foot Hair', Nature, 405, 681-685 (2000). Bate, R. R., Mueller, D. D. and White, J. E., Fundamentals of Astrodynamics, Dover, NY (1971). Benford, J., Benford, G., Gornostaeva, O., Garate, E., Anderson, M., Prichard, A. and Harris, H., 'Experimental Tests of...

Unpowered Planetary Gravity Assists

Gravity assist manoeuvres are now essential tools in launching spacecraft to the outer Solar System and beyond. Humanity's first outer-planet and extra-solar probes, Pioneer 10 11 and Voyager 1 2, made ample use of unpowered giant planet gravity assists to redirect their velocity vectors the solar probe Ulysees applied a Jupiter gravity assist to manoeuvre into an orbit passing over the Sun's poles Mariner 10 used a Venus flyby to repeatedly visit the vicinity of Mercury Jupiter orbiter Galileo...

A2 History Of Interstellar Solarsailing Concepts

Although the solar photon sail is a leading contender for humanity's first dedicated forays into the Galaxy, the first rigorous considerations of the solar sail's applicability to extra-solar or interstellar space travel did not occur until the 1970s and 1980s. Although much of the research supported a British Interplanetary Society (BIS) study of the feasibility of interstellar travel, most of the researchers who participated in this phase of solar sail research were Americans (see Mallove and...

The Ramjet Runway

The final ramjet version to be considered in this chapter is the ramjet runway, presented schematically in Figure 8.5. First suggested by Whitmire and Jackson (1977), and evaluated at non-relativistic velocities by Matloff (1979), the ramjet runway is a compromise approach that compensates for the non-fusability of interstellar ions by preparing, in front of the spacecraft, a 'runway' consisting of electrically charged fusion micropellets. These micropellets would be deposited by a Electrically...

Cabbages And Kings General Relativity And Spacetime Warps

General relativistic effects cannot be ignored in really accurate treatments of even slow interstellar travel because, as Banfi 1998 has pointed out, an inner Solar System starting point for any interstellar expedition is within the warped spacetime produced by the Sun's gravitational field. But such refinements might be considered the 'cabbages' of general relativity. The 'kings' of the general relativistic theory are, of course, the space-time warps long used as universal shortcuts by science...

Antimatter The Ultimate Fuel

Perhaps because of television's Star Trek series, everyone has heard of antimatter. Unlike fission and fusion, which convert less than 1 of the reactant mass to energy, all of the mass of a matter antimatter reaction is converted into energy. The matter antimatter reaction violates no physical laws, and the technology of antimatter production and storage is making great strides. The only obstacle to the construction of large antimatter fuelled rockets capable of approaching the speed of light...