## Problems

1. Temperatures in desert areas often reach 40° C. Calculate the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale.

2. Pressure cookers are usually used to cook food at temperatures higher than the normal boiling point of water without burning the food. They can also be used to verify the third special law derived from the general gas law, i.e., PIT — constant, assuming that V is constant, provided no water is present in the cooker (water does not obey the general gas law). A six-quart pressure cooker is sealed at normal atmospheric pressure (14.7 lb/sq in.) at a temperature of 20° C. Calculate the Celsius temperature to which the pressure cooker must be heated in order to double the internal pressure. (Hint: Remember that the general gas laws require the use of absolute temperatures.)

3. Verify the efficiencies for the four Carnot engines specified in Table 5.1.

4. The steam turbine power plant specified in Table 5.1 can generate electrical energy at a rate of 5 million kilowatts, (a) Calculate the rate of deposit of heat into the power plant's cooling system during the course of normal operation. [Hint: Efficiency can be expressed as useful energy output (work) per heat energy input or alternatively as useful power output per rate of heat input.] (b) Calculate the rate of entropy increase of the universe during the normal operation of this power plant.

### References

Henry Adams, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma, Macmillan, New York, 1920. This book typifies the impact of the "Heat Death" on social thinking.

Rudolf Arnheim, Entropy and Art: An Essay on Disorder and Order. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1971.

Contrasts what should be the artist's view of these subjects with the physicist's view.

George Gamow, Mr. Tompkins in Paperback, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971, Chapter 9.

See footnote 11 in Chapter 6, Section D5.

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971.

Attempts a mathematical analysis of economic theory, employing general physics concepts from thermodynamics and quantum theory.

Charles C. Gillispie, The Edge of Objectivity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1960, pp. 400-405.

### See comment in references for Chapter 1.

Gerald Holton and Stephen G. Brush, Introduction to Concepts and Theories in Physical Science, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1973, Chapter 18. See comment in references for Chapter 1.

Zbigniew Lewicki, The Bang and the Whimper: Apocalypse and Entropy in American Literature. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The latter half of this book discusses the entropy concept as employed by various American writers, including Herman Melville, Nathaniel West, Thomas Pynchon, William Gaddis, Susan Sontag, and John Updike.

Morton Mott-Smith, The Concept of Energy Simply Explained, Dover Publications, New York, 1964.

### See comment in references for Chapter 4.

J. R. Powell, F. J. Salzano, Wen-Shi Yu, and J. S. Milau, "A High Efficiency Power Cycle in Which Hydrogen is Compressed by Absorption in Metal Hydrides," Science, Vol. 193, 23 July 1976, pp. 314-316. Describes a three-reservoir heat engine.

John F. Sandfort, Heat Engines, Anchor Books, Garden City, N.Y., 1962. An introductory essentially nonmathematical discussion of heat engines, written for the lay public.

Mark W. Zemansky, Temperatures Very Low and Very High, D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1964.

An introductory discussion on the college level, which assumes some knowledge of physics. Albert Einstein. (American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library.)