where aGM, av0, ad, and aAv are the 1-a errors contributing to the error in the value of GM. The relative flyby velocity v0 and the closest approach distance d will be determined from orbit determination after the encounter and are expected to be accurate to much less than 0.0001 ms-1 and about 1 km, respectively. This implies that the fractional error associated with uncertainty in the velocity observations is, vo v0 13,785 ms-1 which is a very small contribution to the total error.
The error contribution from the closest approach distance is
Again the error in the observed is of the order, aAv 0.02 • 10-3ms-1
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