And Operations

By Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty. Published as NASA Special Publication-4204 in the NASA History Series, 1978.

Table of Contents

• Library of Congress Card Catalog Foreword Preface o Chapter 1 - The First Steps

■ Genesis of the Saturn Program

■ A Saturn Launch Site

■ Building a Launch Complex

■ Missions for Saturn

■ A Marriage of Convenience

■ Upper Stages o Chapter 2 - Launch Complex 34

■ Conversations with the Air Force

■ Writing the Criteria Book

■ Problems in Designs

■ A Service Structure for Saturn

■ A Money Transfusion

■ The Ground Support Equipment

■ Labor Difficulties o Chapter 3 - Launching the First Saturn I Booster

■ The Magnitude of the Task

■ The Leadership

■ The Saturn Goes Sailing

■ Beginning the Checkout

o Chapter 4 - Origins of the Mobile Moonport

■ Ambitious Plans and Limited Space

■ Offshore Launch Facilities

■ Texas Tower vs. Landfill

■ The Mobile Launch Concept

■ The Mobile Concept - Initial Studies

■ NASA Plans for a Lunar Landing

■ The FLeming Committee

■ Debus-Davis Study

■ Debus-Davis Report - Launch Concept o Chapter 5 - Acquiring a Launch Site

■ Hazards Board Recommends Merritt Island

■ Organizing for the Debus-Davis Study

■ Recommending a Launch Site

■ The Questions Begin

■ The Webb-Gilpatric Agreement

■ Merritt Island Purchase

■ The Titan III Problem

■ Congress Says NASA

■ Land, Lots of Land - Much of It Marshy o Chapter 6 - LC-39 Plans Take Shape

■ Rapidly Evolving Hardware

■ The Mobile Launch Plan Comes Under Fire

■ The Crawler Makes Its Debut

■ The Mobile Launch Concept - Debate and Approval o Chapter 7 - The Launch Directorate Becomes an Operational Center

■ Growing Responsibilities at the Cape

■ The Argument for Independent Status

■ New Captains at the Cape

■ Organizing the Launch Operations Center

■ "Grand Fenwick" Overtakes the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

■ Mid-1963: A Time of Reappraisal

■ Kennedy's Last Visit

■ Washington Redraws Management Lines

■ Data Management o Chapter 8 - Funding the Project

■ The Budgetary Process

■ Subcommittee Hearings at the Cape

■ Progress in Washington

■ Updating LC-39 Requirements

■ The Fiscal 1964 Program

■ "What Is It Going to Cost?" o Chapter 9 - Apollo Integration

■ An Integration Role for General Electric?

■ Intercenter Panels

■ New Contractors with New Roles

■ Relations with Marshall Space Flight Center

■ Relations with Manned Spacecraft Center

■ Summary o Chapter 10 - Saturn I Launches (1962 - 1965)

■ Testing the Booster

■ A Second Saturn Launch Complex - LC-37

■ The Troubled Lauching of SA-5, January 1964

■ The Cracked Sleeves

■ The Remaining Block II Launches, SA-6 - SA-10 o Chapter 11 - Ground Plans for Outer Space Ventures

■ URSAM Makes Its Debut

■ URSAM and the Design Contract

■ Launch Control Center Design

■ Design of the Crawlerway

■ Flame Deflector and Launch Pads

■ Plans for the Industrial Area

■ Design of the Central Instrumentation Facility

■ Selection of MILA Support Contracts o Chapter 12 - From Designs to Structures

■ Making Big Sandpiles

■ NASA Declares War - On Mosquitoes

■ Contracting for the VAB and the LCC

■ Laying the Foundations

■ Structural Steel and General Construction

■ Cleo and Dora Visit the Cape

■ VAB Nears Completion

■ Construction in the Industrial Area

■ Ceremonies at Completion o Chapter 13 - New Devices for New Deeds

■ The Crawler-Transporter

■ Building a New King of the Road

■ The Swing-Arm Controversy

■ Hold-Down Arms and Tail Service Masts

■ From Arming Tower to Mobile Service Structure

■ Lightning Protection for Apollo Launch Operations

■ Flame Deflectors o Chapter 14 - Socio-Economic Problems on the Space Coast

■ Labor Problems at the Missile Center

■ The Center's Labor Policy

■ A Spring and Summer of Strikes

■ The Spaceport's Impact on Local Communities

■ Familial and Personal Tensions o Chapter 15 - Putting It All Together: LC-39 Site Activation

■ The Site Activation Board

■ Site Activation Working Groups

■ Interface Control Documentation

■ The Crawler-Transporters Begin to Crawl

■ "Negative Slack" in "Critical Paths"

■ Lack of Oxygen Slows Apollo

■ Management by Embarrassment o Chapter 16 - Automating Launch Operations

■ Origins of Saturn Automated Checkout

■ Saturn I-IB Computer Complex

■ Saturn V Computer Complex

■ The Transition to Automation

■ Automating Telemetry Operation

■ Automatic Checkout for the Spacecraft

■ Spacecraft Checkout o Chapter 17 - Launching the Saturn 1B

■ Remodelling LC-34 for Bigger Things

■ The Apollo-Saturn 1B Space Vehicle

■ The Troubled checkout of AS-201

■ A Reorganization

■ More launches of the Saturn 1B

o Chapter 18 - The Fire That Seared the Spaceport

■ Introduction

■ Predictions of Trouble

■ The Spacecraft Comes to KSC

■ The Hunches of Tom Baron

■ The Review Board

■ Congress Investigates

■ The Boeing-TIE Contract o Chapter 19 - The Trial Run

■ The Significance of AS-501

■ Delay after Delay after Delay

■ Press, VIPs, Tourists, Dependents

■ KSC Learns about Government Accounting o Chapter 20 - Man on Apollo

■ Apollo 6 - A "Less Than Perfect" Mission

■ Two Engines Out but Still Running

■ Apollo Astronauts at KSC

■ Apollo 7 Operations

■ Apollo 8 Launch Operations - Early Uncertainties

■ Lunar Module Problems and Another Change of Mission

■ Launch Countdown for Men on Saturn V

■ Apollo 8 - A Christmas Gift o Chapter 21 - Success

■ The Launch Complex Becomes "Operational"

■ The Slowest Part of the Trip

■ The Contractors Receive Their Due

■ Changes in the Telemetry

o Chapter 22 - A Slower Pace: Apollo 12 - 14

■ Introduction

■ Lightning Strikes

■ Whys and Wherefores of Lightning

■ Apollo 13 Launch Operations

■ A Fragile Lifeboat

■ Apollo 14 Launch Operations

■ Pruning the Apollo Program

■ The Impact of the Apollo Slowdown on KSC

■ Chapter 23 - Extended Lunar Exploration: Apollo 15 - 17

■ A Change of Course for Apollo

■ Interfaces with the First SIM

■ The Moon Gets an Automobile

■ Lunar Module Problems and More Lightning

■ Apollo 16 Operations

■ Spacecraft Storage

■ Apollo 17 Launch Operations

■ Chapter 24 - Five Years After o Appendix A: Launches of Saturn 1B and Saturn V o Appendix B: Launch Complex 39 o Appendices C-E

o Bibliography

■ Journal Articles

■ Congressional Documents

■ Conference Papers

■ Technical Reports

■ Interviews

Updated September 26, 2000 Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian Steve Garber, NASA History Web Curator For further information E-mail [email protected]

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Benson, Charles D.

Moonport.

(The NASA history series) (NASA SP ; 4204)

Bibliography: p. Includes index.

1. John F. Kennedy Space Center-History.

I. Faherty, William Barnaby, 1914- joint author. II. Title.

III. Series: United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The NASA History series

IV. Series: United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA SP ; 4204. TL4027. F52J635 629.47 '8 0975927 77-29118

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 (paper cover ) Stock No. 033-000-00740-0/Catatog No. NAS 1.21:4204

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