Surface distribution 2D statistics

An examination of the distribution of the numbers of galaxies recorded on photographic plates shows that it does not conform to the Poisson law and indicates the presence of a factor causing 'contagion'.

(Neyman, Scott & Shane 1953)

The distribution of objects on the celestial sphere, or on an imaged patch of this sphere, has ever been a major preoccupation of astronomers. Avoiding here the science of image processing, the province of thousands of books and papers, we consider some of the common statistical approaches used to quantify sky distributions in order to permit contact with theory. Before we turn to the adopted statistical weaponry of galaxy distribution, we discuss some general statistics applicable to the spherical surface.

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