E21 Criswell 1983 and Davis 1983

Criswell (1983) suggested that the successful operation of a lunar supply system could almost eliminate the need for the Space Shuttle to carry propellant to low Earth orbit (LEO).1 This would increase its useful cargo capacity. The savings created by a lunar-based transportation system could quickly exceed the costs involved in developing it. These results were based on the assumption that hydrogen in a LOX-hydrogen rocket system is provided from Earth, and only the oxygen is produced on the...

Tables

1.1 Properties of the Moon 2.1 Properties of the electromagnetic spectrum 3.1 Major elements in the lunar 3.2 Trace elements in the lunar regolith A.1 Planetary surface mission A.2 Tasks for robots in advance of human missions A.3 EVA assistance minimization A.4 Future robotic development A.5 Distance to the horizon on Earth and the A.6 A generic sortie on a planetary B.1 Hydrogen content of bulk lunar soils C.1 Chemical compositions of JSC-1 and lunar C.2 Major element composition of D.1...

B16 Glasses

Impact glasses may have been derived from either mare or highland compositions, because meteorites and micrometeorites are indiscriminate about what types of rocks they impact. Glasses of volcanic origin are typically associated with the mare areas. Three to five percent of all lunar soil consist of impact glasses that do not have any inclusions, and are not part of an agglutinate. One interesting group in this category is the high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP) glasses. These have been found on...

O2 History

The ILO mission was conceived during the International Lunar Conference 2003 - the fifth meeting of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). Lunar scientists, entrepreneurs, policy makers, advocates and others gathered to discuss the next step in human exploration of the Moon. The Hawaii Moon Declaration, a one-page Ad Astra per Luna manifesto, written and signed by conference participants. Soon after, the ILO mission began to take shape. 1 This appendix is reproduced by...

Heater

Iron-rich glass could be used in the process, in which hot hydrogen gas flows through the system to reduce the oxides. The reactions for high-titanium soil and for iron-rich volcanic glasses are described in Appendix E. Volcanic glass would be the optimum feedstock for this process, because it is uniformly fine-grained, it reacts rapidly, and it can be used with little or no preprocessing. Additionally, iron-rich glass produces a higher oxygen yield than does high-Ti regolith. The production of...

Gl2 Purpose of government

The purpose of the lunar government will be to facilitate the responsible and peaceful exploration, development, and settlement of the Moon by effective, cost-efficient, and just means. It is assumed that the government will be a representative democracy1 that serves the best interests,2 and reflects the highest aspirations, of the citizens of the government. 1 The alternatives to a democracy (where the citizens as a whole constitute the sovereign of the government) are a monarchy, an...

Sunsynchronous operations and Magellan routes of discovery

The relatively slow rate of rotation of the Moon about its axis offers the opportunity for Sun-synchronous travel on the surface of the Moon (9.6 miles hr 15.4km hr at the equator and proportionately less at higher latitudes). For example, a solar-powered wheeled vehicle could move west continuously at 1.3km hr at 86 south latitude, and maintain the Sun at the same angle in the sky. This route of travel would enable the vehicle to receive sunlight for solar power continuously during its journey...

The LEDA model of lunar governance

A prototype port authority for the Moon has been developed by the United Societies in Space (USIS) and its affiliated World-Space Bar Association (WSBA). It is termed the Lunar Economic Development Authority (LEDA) and, if adopted, would act as an internationally sanctioned port authority for the Moon. The LEDA form of governance is discussed in detail in Appendix F. An existing national government or a consortium of governments could serve as the host nation for LEDA alternatively, an entirely...

E72 Fluxed electrolysis or molten salt electrolysis feedstockindependent

Products oxygen, volatiles, iron, metal oxides, silicon, molten slag Silicates can be melted or dissolved in a fused (melted) salt, then electrolyzed with oxygen evolved at the anode. As discussed in the previous section, direct melting and electrolysis is potentially a very simple process, but high temperatures of 1,400-1,500 C are required, which aggravates materials problems. By using a molten salt flux, operating temperatures can be lowered to about 1,000 C. In this case, however, losses of...

Venus

Spacecraft that are manufactured on the Moon, including solar sails, solar power satellites, balloons, and various landing craft, can be launched by mass driver to Venus. Satellites will be inserted into orbit, balloons placed in the atmosphere, and autonomous robots will be delivered to the surface of Venus by a combination of 14 The problems of thermal stress and heat rejection will be much more severe on Mercury than on the Moon. Active thermal control systems, such as a circumferential...

Cislunar orbital environment maintenance

Abdullah Alangari, Adrienne Catone, Divya Chander, Andrey Glebov, Matthew Marshall, Michael Nolan, Brian Phail, Allen Ruilova, and Madhu Thangavelu Conductor, Space Exploration Architectures Concepts Synthesis Studio1 This project was conducted in the AE599 Space Exploration Architectures Concepts Synthesis Studio, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California, in the Fall semester of 1995. These conceptual ideas were created employing a unique architectural approach to...

B24 Lunar soil grain shapes and sizes

Now that the terminology has been explained, we can discuss the lunar soil grains with less ambiguity. The shapes of individual lunar soil grains are highly variable, ranging from spherical to extremely angular. Because they are usually elongated, the grains tend to pack together with a preferred orientation of the long axes. Consequently, we can expect that some of the physical and geotechnical properties of the lunar surface will be anisotropic.21 For example, the thermal conductivity in the...

Energy transmission from the Moon

It is possible to generate terawatts of electric power on the Moon from solar cells that are made from lunar-derived materials. The power levels will meet or exceed all of the needs of the lunar civilization, and excess energy will be available for export to other areas in the solar system, including the Earth. The method for transferring energy from one site to another is to convert the electric energy in the lunar power grid into microwave or laser beams, which are both forms of...

Kenneth G Cooper NASA Marshall Space Flight Center James E Good MEI Technologies Inc Scott D Gilley Tec Masters

NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the-art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as...

Construction Of The Utilities Infrastructure

During the first two phases of lunar development, a continuing stream of tools and equipment will be delivered to the Moon. The number of people living on the Moon will gradually increase in step with the construction of habitats and life-support systems. This increasing capability to do useful work will enable commercial entities and the international lunar community to undertake the construction of the circumferential utility networks. As mentioned in Chapter 5, the production of solar cells...

E711 Technological challenges for magma electrolysis

Several problems remain to be worked out with magma electrolysis. Early work by Boundy (1983) showed that, for this route to work, one must first melt the rock, using heat alone (without flux). This puts a more stringent design requirement on containment materials. This difficulty can be relieved on the full-scale plant by designing thermal gradients within the cell. Another problem is that pipes must be very carefully thermally-controlled. Because the average operating temperature of the...

Usa

Space Exploration Architectures Concept Synthesis Studio Department of Astronautics and Space Technology Viterbi School of Engineering and The School of Architecture University of Southern California California USA SPRINGER-PRAXIS BOOKS IN SPACE EXPLORATION SUBJECT ADVISORY EDITOR John Mason, M.Sc., B.Sc., Ph.D. ISBN 978-0-387-36055-3 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Springer is part of Springer-Science + Business Media (springer.com) Library of Congress Control Number 2007921270 Apart from...

D3 Manufacturing Of Other Items D31 Beneficiation

There may be some manufactured items that are more easily produced from pure minerals than from lunar soil. As explained in Appendix B, lunar soil contains agglutinates, and it is challenging to separate these into their constituent parts. Lunar soil is a better feedstock material than lunar rock for most purposes, because using soil would eliminate the need for blasting and grinding. However, if pure minerals are needed, it will be more practical to crush and separate rocks, which are devoid...

Fear of equipment failure

Monotony (of food, recreation, tasks, etc.). Complexity of mission tasks. The living and working quarters at the first lunar base will subject the crew to multiple stress factors. The base will be spartan, with little more than the barest essentials that are needed for survival and experimentation. Because the weight and volume of materials that can be delivered from the Earth to the Moon is limited and because transportation expenses are large, the living spaces for the first crews will be...

B23 Particle shapes

Particle shapes are described by terms such as elongation, aspect ratio, roundness, sphericity, volume coefficient, and specific surface area. Elongation is defined as the ratio of the major axis to the intermediate axis of the particle, or length to width. Particles with elongation values less than 1.3 are classified as equant, and those with values greater than 1.3 are classified as elongate. Aspect ratio is inversely related to elongation. It is the ratio of the minor axis to the major axis...

G13 Constitutional rule of law

To establish the government, a constitution is created to define the structure, mechanisms, responsibilities, and limitations of the lunar government. The constitution is superior to all other directives, thus creating a rule of law3 for the government and its citizens. The designated legislative branch of the government is empowered by the constitution to create a body of legislative laws, or statutes, by which the ends of government are attained. The purpose of government is not realized if...

Mons Malapert

Lunar Newton

Mons Malapert1 in the south polar region of the Moon, may be the best location for the first lunar base. This feature is located at longitude 2 east, latitude 85.75 south (see Figures 5.1 and 5.2). The vertical distance from terrain near the base of the mountain to the summit may be as much as 8,000 meters. However, the summit of the mountain is calculated to project approximately 4,700 meters above the 1,738-km lunar reference radius of the Moon. The difference in these elevations is explained...

C22 Simulants for civil engineering experiments

JSC-1 Simulants that are to be used for engineering tests require a far greater volume of material than those required by resource extraction experiments. The first engineering simulant that was produced for general use was JSC-1. It was developed by Dr. David McKay of NASA's Johnson Space Center, with help from Dr. James Carter of the University of Texas at Dallas, and Dr. Carl Allen and Judy Allton, both of Lockheed. Texas A& M University was tasked with providing storage and preliminary...

E57 Carbochlorination

Products oxygen, silicon, iron, and aluminum One advantage of using chlorine in a chemical process is that almost all the elements in the periodic table will react with chlorine to form chlorides, except for a few noble gases. However, metal chlorides are difficult to form from metal oxides. This difficulty can be overcome by using a COCl2 gas mixture or by reacting the Cl2 in the presence of solid carbon. In carbochlorination, carbon monoxide acts as a reducing agent, forming CO2, while the...

Infrastructure requirements

In the early phases of lunar development, none of the robotic devices will be entirely autonomous. Rather, they will be under the direct or indirect control of humans 9 Haptic of or relating to or proceeding from the sense of touch. 10 Eventually, when pressurized environments exist on the Moon, stereo audio will also be useful. on Earth. Tele-operated devices require continuous direction, but more autonomous devices have some capacity to function on their own, with only general supervision and...

K3 Mass Drivers

One of the barriers to lunar development is the risk, cost, and complexity of the chemically-fueled rockets that are used to transfer cargoes between the surface of the Moon and lunar orbit. In particular, a major concern of space planners is the energy cost'' of transporting a payload from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, and returning a similar payload back to lunar orbit from the gravity well'' of the Moon with conventional rocket systems. When a payload is transferred between lunar...

J4 Psychological Needs Of Human Habitation

On long-duration scientific missions such as wintertime Antarctica expeditions, stress is a hazard that can degrade the performance of the crew and jeopardize the mission objectives. Stress produces adverse effects on human behavior, cognition, physiology, and organization (Harrison et al., 1991 Harris, 1996). Its symptoms include insomnia, depression, irritability, decreased intellectual and physical performance, and decreased attention span. Stress is produced by many factors, including the...

Mining of NEOs

Robotic-mining and bulk-processing equipment, communications equipment, and solar cell arrays20 are manufactured on the Moon and launched by mass driver on a trajectory that intercepts the designated NEO. The mining, communication, and power supply equipment are landed and set up on the asteroid, and mining operations of the NEO begin.21 A pallet of raw material from the asteroid, such as a mixture of ore and water-ice, is prepared for transport to the Moon. Utilizing solar sails, lunar-made...

The Lunar Railroad

Small, unpressurized excursion vehicles will serve the needs of local transportation for crew and cargo (Figure 6.7). The Lunar Excursion Modules (LEMs) used in the Apollo program served this purpose very well. However, these vehicles had limitations in range, safety, and cargo capacity. They also disturb and accumulate the abrasive lunar dust, which is a hazard for both machines and humans (see Figure 6.9. Earth-Moon transit vehicles. Lunar-made heat shields are attached to the return stage...

Human Factors

Prior to the arrival of the first human settlers, the tools, equipment, and consumables needed to support them can be delivered to the lunar base. Habitats will be assembled robotically - at the Earth-facing slope of Mons Malapert near the summit, for example - that provide protection from cosmic radiation, micrometeorites, and temperature extremes. One scenario for habitation is to deliver inflatable habitats (see Figure 6.2) to the Moon and install them, using tele-operated robots, in the...

Build a little test a little

Testing and analysis of each successive prototype should be used to define the specifications of the next prototype. This allows partial functionality to be fielded earlier, producing results that encourage additional development. Robot prototype demonstrations early in the planning stages will instill confidence and showcase capabilities to planners and managers. Robot accommodations and tasking will occur when the understanding exists about what robots can do and what is required...

F6 About The Authors

Harris, Ph.D., is a space psychologist and Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Harris is Chairman Emeritus of the Board for United Societies in Space, Inc., and author editor of forty books, including Living and Working in Space, Second Edition (Wiley Praxis, 1996). (His address is 2792 Costebelle Dr., LaJolla, California, U.S.A. tel 1-619 453-2271 fax 1-619 4530788 e-mail philharris aol.com). Declan J. O'Donnell, JD, is a tax attorney and...

Dl11 Lunar ilmenite for solar panels

As discussed above, most photovoltaic cells are made with silicon or gallium arsenide. However, ilmenite - particularly ilmenite which is formed in a reducing atmosphere such as the Moon's - has excellent potential as a material for photovoltaic cells. Ilmenite comprises up to 20 percent of the lunar regolith in its richest locations. It has been studied for use as a feedstock for the hydrogen reduction process to manufacture oxygen. However, its use as a semiconductor and for solar cell...

D43 Breaking old habits

Almost every country in the world now uses the metric system. In the U.S., high-technology machines that are used for fabricating metal parts are capable of working with either English or metric units. Moreover, scientists worldwide (including U.S. scientists) use the metric system exclusively. Not using the metric system for engineering efforts reduces the U.S. ability to work with international partners in the exploration of the Moon. The lunar government will almost certainly adopt the...

E13 Conclusions

The general consensus of the trade studies is that oxygen production would be economically beneficial for lunar base development in almost any scenario. As a bonus, most of the processes that produce oxygen also provide other valuable materials. We have reviewed several of the proposed processes for lunar oxygen production and discussed the benefits and possible drawbacks of each. Our conclusion is that the four most promising processes are (a) hydrogen reduction of glass (b) magma electrolysis...

B17 Kreep K Rare Earth Elements and P

KREEP is an acronym that stands for potassium (atomic symbol K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorus (P), and is a component that is found in some lunar rocks. In addition to the potassium, KREEP contains other heat-producing elements - uranium and thorium. KREEP is probably a result of the Moon's origin, which is thought to be the result of a collision between the proto-Earth and a Mars-sized object that impacted the Earth 4.5 billion years ago. This impact put a large amount of material...

Dash To The Pole

Simultaneously with the build-up of lunar base operations, wheeled robotic vehicles will embark on exploratory missions in the south polar region. With increasing capability and experience, excursions to the south pole from Newton Base at Malapert will be possible. The Moon, like the Earth, experiences annual seasons, but the Moon's seasons are far less pronounced than Earth's mid-latitude summers and winters. Seasons result when a planet's axis of rotation is not vertical with respect to the...

Dll Solar power cells for electricity

As discussed in Appendix A, concepts for paving the Moon with solar power cells are being developed, because most alternative sources of power are either more expensive, more complex, or both. Fuel cells are another emerging possibility, especially for rovers that must operate during the lunar night, but they require replenishment of their constituents - converting the output water back into oxygen and hydrogen. Solar power cells are likely to be the primary method of obtaining electrical power...

H2 Helium3 Fusion

A D-He3 fusion plant would be inherently safer than a D-T fusion plant. Calculations have shown that the consequences of a complete and instantaneous coolant loss are minimal, and that safety can be assured by passive means no matter what the accident sequence. A meltdown is virtually impossible in a D-He3 reactor because they operate at lower temperatures and the maximum temperature increase over one month is only 350 C, even with no cooling and perfect insulation. Moreover, in the worst...

E113 Roxygen

Work is underway at NASA to prepare for the first robotic missions to the surface of the Moon in over 30 years. Part of this planning involves the development of various pilot-scale oxygen-production plants. Carbon-monoxide-silicate reduction, fluxed magma electrolysis, and hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith are being studied. Figure E.16. Suitcase-size hydrogen-reduction plant. Figure E.16. Suitcase-size hydrogen-reduction plant. Building on the work of the last 40 years, these designs are...

E58 Chlorine plasma extraction

Septic Worm Tank Design

As described above in the carbochlorination process, cold chlorine will only react with iron oxide (such as in ilmenite), and thus cannot be used without carbon. Another process was described by Lynch (1989), which uses a cold plasma reactor to create a chlorine plasma. Calculations indicate that stable metal oxides can undergo chlorination and yield oxygen as a by-product, under the influence of such a plasma. In spite of the name, cold plasmas are not necessarily cold. They can exist at...

Power Towers

Power for the lunar base will be principally obtained from solar cells, analogous to the power supply for the International Space Station. At first all of the power requirements needed for lunar activity will be derived from photovoltaic panels and solar dynamic generators that are delivered to the Moon from Earth. (Solar dynamic generators use solar concentrators to drive a high-efficiency mechanical turbine system, generating kilowatts of power. Their thermodynamics employ Stirling and...

Basins and basin rings

Basins are the largest features of the Moon, and near-side basins can easily be seen with the unaided eye from Earth, appearing as relatively dark circles on the surface. Basins are different from craters mainly with respect to their size. Basins are lunar impact excavations with diameters of at least 300 km, while craters are smaller than 300 km. This is the size at which central crater peaks are observed to change into central rings. Three important basins on the Moon are the Orientale Basin,...

T41 Making themselves at home

Even in the first initial human outpost, crew members could bring rock inside the habitat as adornment in itself, or perhaps carve it into an artifact. An early cast-basalt industry, early metal alloys industries, early lunar farming will all supply materials out of which to create things to adorn private and common spaces alike. Learning to do arts and crafts on the Moon may seem useless and irrelevant to some, but it will be the first humble start of learning to make the Moon home. And so it...

F2 Space Economic Development Authorities

To resolve this impasse and further human enterprise in space, the United Societies in Space, Inc. (USIS) and its affiliated World-Space Bar Association (W-SBA) have devised a strategy for immediate implementation. Called the Space Economic and Development Authority (SEDA), the concept is to form a series of such authorities for both public and private international participation, aimed specifically toward providing the financing, governance, and management for free enterprise development of...

A strategy for the exploration and settlement of Mars

Mars Cyclers

During the early stages of lunar development, an ongoing program of unmanned exploratory missions are launched from the Earth to Mars. After an industrial base and permanent utilities infrastructure are in place on the Moon, unmanned spacecraft are constructed and tested on the Moon and launched by mass driver on a trajectory to Mars. Imaging and communications satellites are placed in Mars orbit, and tele-operated and autonomous surface-roving robots are placed on the Martian surface by means...

The Maglev Rail System

The utility network of the south polar region will likely be extended over the entire Moon as the lunar civilization and culture develop. The simple two-track rail system can then be augmented by the development of a magnetic levitation (maglev) rail system, which will provide high-speed transport of humans and cargo on the Moon (Figure 8.7). It will be highly efficient because there is no air resistance on the Moon and it may be able to travel at a speed of one kilometer per second. The growth...

Acknowledgements

We give special thanks to Steve Durst of Space Age Publishing for his advice and generous support in the preparation of this publication, and to Paul DiMare, our illustrator, whose artistry is truly unique and inspirational. We sincerely appreciate the advice, assistance, and vision provided by the following (at NASA) Chris Culbert, Tom Simon, Sue Wentworth, David McKay, Carl Allen, Kriss Kennedy, Wendell Mendell, Doug Cooke, Larry Kuznetz, Simon Pete Worden, Larry Kellogg, and Paul Lowman, and...

The Embryonic Circumferential Infrastructure

Over a period of several years, terrain surveys of the south polar region, including the coordinated exploration by swarms of robots (see Figure 5.6) will have produced accurate maps of the south polar region and a list of promising sites for communications relay stations and power generation towers on high ground. Manufacturing efforts will have been focused on the mass-production of solar cells, wires, insulators, Figure 5.6. A swarm of robots explores the south polar region (Thangavelu...

B5 References

Ill 1994 Trafficability of Lunar Microrovers Part 1 . LGI-TR94-02, Lunar Geotechnical Institute, Lakeland, FL. Carter, J.L. 1985 Lunar Regolith Fines A Source of Hydrogen. In W. Mendell, ed., Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX. Costes, N.C. et al., 1971 Cone penetration resistance test - an approach to evaluating inplace strength and packing characteristics of lunar soils. Proc. Second Lunar Sci. Conf., Vol. 3, MIT...

Lunar Base Port

Lunar Base

The lunar base port will be the gateway to Planet Moon, serving functions analogous to any international air or seaport on Earth. Initially, a single base port will be the hub of lunar development projects. Eventually, several ports will be built at many locations on the Moon. The port may need a lunar quarantine facility to assure that Earth-Moon mutual contamination is kept to a minimum. Crews and passengers will be acclimatized to 1 gravity in special training quarters and oriented to the...

B11 Mineralogy and petrology7

Regolith samples from the lunar maria contain abundant basaltic8 rock fragments their minerals are largely pyroxene,9 olivine,10 and ilmenite11 Figure B.1 . 2 A rock is defined is an aggregate of one or more minerals. 3 An agglutinate is a small soil-sized particle in which several other soil particles are glued together by a glassy groundmass. 4 A breccia is a consolidated clod containing rock fragments. It may also contain glass. 5 A glass is a non-crystalline solid. 6 This probably has more...