Appendices

A Robots on Planet Moon 201

A.1 Robotics technology for the first and follow-up lander missions to the south pole 201

A.1.1 Benefits of sending robotic lander missions to the lunar polar regions 201

A.1.2 Other ISRU experiments (stationary or mobile) 205

A.1.3 Robotic development of the south pole infrastructure . . 208

A.1.4 Robotic explorations of the lower latitudes 210

A.2 Robotic tasks and subtasks 211

A.2.1 Robotic tasks for planetary surface missions 211

A.2.2 Pervasive subtasks, activities, and capabilities 215

A.2.3 Specific high-value robotic technologies for lunar development 220

A.2.4 A "generic" sortie on a planetary surface 223

A.3 Conceptual design for RoboTractor: a multi-purpose excavating and regolith-moving machine 226

A.3.1 Summary 226

A.3.2 Basic requirements and design elements 226

A.3.3 Preliminary design synthesis 230

A.3.4 Example development cycle for RoboTractor 232

A.4 Conclusions 233

A.5 References 233

B Lunar regolith properties 235

B.1 Chemical and mineralogical differences between lunar regolith and soils on Earth 236

B.1.1 Mineralogy and petrology 236

B.1.2 Maturity 237

B.1.3 Agglutinates 238

B.1.4 Solar wind volatiles implantation 238

B.1.5 Breccias 240

B.1.6 Glasses 240

B.1.7 KREEP (K, Rare Earth Elements, and P) 241

B.2 Physical properties of the lunar regolith 242

B.2.1 Geotechnical properties 243

B.2.2 Grain size distribution terminology 244

B.2.3 Particle shapes 246

B.2.4 Lunar soil grain shapes and sizes 247

B.3 Dust 251

B.3.1 Electrostatic charging 251

B.3.2 Dust mitigation 252

B.4 Summary 255

B.5 References 255

C Lunar soil simulants 257

C.1 What is a simulant? 257

C.2 Types of simulants 257

C.2.1 Simulants for consumables extraction experiments 258 C.2.2 Simulants for civil engineering experiments 259

C.3 Future Development of Simulants 262

C.3.1 Ongoing research 262

C.3.2 Standardized simulants 263

C.4 Summary 265

C.5 References 266

D In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) 269

D.1 Power 270

D.1.1 Solar power cells for electricity 270

D.1.2 Mirrors and solar concentrators 276

D.1.3 Rocket fuels and oxidizers 277

D.1.4 Other consumables 278

D.2 Roads, Habitats and Facilities 280

D.2.1 Excavation and transport 280

D.2.2 Construction 285

D.3 Manufacturing of Other Items 292

D.3.1 Beneficiation 292

D.3.2 Processing of beneficiated materials 293

D.3.3 Chemical vapor deposition process 293

D.3.4 Manufacturing of high-tech materials 295

D.4 Challenges to be Overcome 296

D.4.1 Mineral rights and commercial use rights 296

D.4.2 Political issues 296

D.4.3 Breaking old habits 297

D.5 Summary 297

D.6 References 297

E Proposed processes for lunar oxygen extraction 305

E.1 Introduction 305

E.2 Trade studies 305

E.2.1 Criswell, 1983; and Davis, 1983 306

E.2.3 Eagle Engineering, 1985 306

E.2.4 Woodcock, 1986 307

E.2.5 Astronautics Corporation of America, 1987 308

E.2.7 Woodcock, 1989 310

E.2.8 Understanding the assumptions 310

E.3 Summary of trade studies 311

E.3.1 Subsystems 311

E.4 Proposed oxygen-extraction processes 311

E.5 Gas/Solid systems 312

E.5.1 Ilmenite reduction by hydrogen (mare only) 312

E.5.2 Variants on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite process . 316

E.5.3 Hydrogen reduction of glass 317

E.5.4 Hydrogen reduction of other lunar materials and lunar simulants 318

E.5.5 Fluorine extraction (feedstock-independent) 319

E.5.6 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduction 321

E.5.7 Carbochlorination 321

E.5.8 Chlorine plasma extraction 323

E.6 Gas/Liquid processes 324

E.6.1 Carbothermal reduction of anorthite 325

E.6.2 Carbon-monoxide-silicate-reduction system 325

E.7 Bulk electrolysis processes 327

E.7.1 Magma electrolysis (feedstock-independent) 327

E.7.2 Fluxed electrolysis or molten salt electrolysis (feedstock-

independent) 331

E.8 Pyrolysis processes 331

E.8.1 Magma partial oxidation (mare only - depends on iron) 331

E.8.2 Vapor-phase reduction (feedstock-independent) 332

E.8.3 Ion (plasma) separation (feedstock-independent) 334

E.9 Slurry/Solution processes 335

E.9.1 HCl dissolution and electrolysis (mare only - ilmenite only) 335

E.9.2 H2S04 dissolution and electrolysis (mare only) 336

E.9.3 HF dissolution and electrolysis (feedstock-independent) . 337 E.9.4 Lithium, aluminum, or sodium reduction (feedstock-

independent) 339

E.9.5 Reduction by aluminum 340

E.9.6 Caustic dissolution and electrolysis 342

E.9.7 Ion sputtering (feedstock-independent) 342

E.10 Process comparisons 343

E.11 Prototype plant designs 345

E.11.1 Prototype robotic lander for ISRU 345

E.11.2 Suitcase-size hydrogen-reduction plant 347

E.11.3 Roxygen 347

E.12 Sulfur and H2S hazards 348

E.13 Conclusions 349

E.14 References 349

F Facilitating space commerce through a lunar economic development authority 355

F.1 Introduction 356

F.1.1 Attitudinal change 356

F.1.2 Commercial, legal, and political challenges in lunar enterprise 358

F.2 Space economic development authorities 359

F.3 Lunar Economic Development Authority 362

F.3.1 How will LEDA facilitate new lunar markets? 362

F.3.2 How will LEDA be legally constituted? 364

F.4 Current endeavors 365

F.5 Conclusions 366

F.6 About the authors 367

F.7 Endnotes 367

F.8 References 368

G Quality standards for the lunar governance 371

G.1 Creation of a lunar government 371

G.1.1 Jurisdiction 371

G.1.2 Purpose of government 371

G.1.3 Constitutional rule of law 372

G.2 The need for quality lawmaking 372

G.2.1 Quality standards for laws 373

G.3 Summary 374

G.4 References 376

H Helium-3 377

H.1 Introduction 377

H.2 Helium-3 fusion 378

H.3 Regolith resources of helium-3 378

H.4 References 379

I NASA and self-replicating systems: Implications for nanotechnology . . . 382

I.1 Further information 384

J Human factors 385

J.1 Hazards in the lunar environment 385

J.1.1 Radiation 385

J.1.2 Lunar dust 387

J.1.3 Lunar gravity 387

J.2 Physiological needs of human habitation 388

J.2.1 Oxygen 388

J.2.3 Food 389

J.3 Controlled ecological life-support system 390

J.3.1 Food crops 391

J.3.2 Waste management 391

J.3.3 Experiments 393

J.4 Psychological needs of human habitation 393

J.5 References 396

K Maglev trains and mass drivers 399

K.1 Electromagnetic transportation 399

K.2 Maglev trains 399

K.3 Mass drivers 400

K.3.1 "Capture" operation of mass drivers 401

K.3.2 Human-rated mass drivers 402

K.4 Summary 403

K.5 References 403

L Development of the lunar economy 405

L.1 Introduction 405

L.2 Commercial space operations 405

L.3 Funds for lunar development 406

L.4 Business operations example: The "Lunar Electric Power

Company" 406

L.5 A self-developing lunar economy 408

L.6 Ethical standards 408

L.7 Summary 410

L.8 References 410

M Lunar mysteries 413

M.1 Lunar transient phenomena 413

M.2 Lunar horizon glow 415

M.3 Mystery of the rusty rocks 417

M.4 Mystery of the Reiner Gamma magnetic anomaly 421

M.5 Summary 423

M.5 References 423

N Milestones of lunar development 425

O International Lunar Observatory/Association 427

O.1 Introduction 427

O.2 History 427

O.3 International, commercial, and individual support 428

O.4 Current progress with nations 428

O.4.1 Hawaii 428

O.4.2 Canada 428

O.4.4 India 429

O.4.7 Russia 429

O.5 Financing 429

O.6 Presumed facts 429

O.7 Richards' master plan 430

O.8 ILO features and benefits 431

P Cislunar orbital environment maintenance 433

P.1 Abstract 434

P.2 Introduction 434

P.3 Earth orbital environment 2001 435

P.4 Architectural elements of the Satellite Service Facility (SSF) 435

P.4.1 Advanced technologies identification 436

P.5 A synergetic supporting architecture 437

P.5.1 The existing manned national Space Transportation

System (STS) 437

P.5.2 Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

(ATDRSS) 437

P.5.3 The orbital debris removal system 438

P.5.4 An artificial gravity facility in Earth orbit 438

P.5.5 Lunar infrastructure development architecture 438

P.5.6 Spacecraft salvage operations architecture 438

P.5.7 Lunar environment maintenance 439

P.6 Mission design and operations 439

P.6.1 ST-1 mission operations 439

P.6.2 ST-2 mission operations 440

P.6.3 Merits and limitations 441

P.7 Recommendations 442

P.8 Economics of the satellite service facility 443

P.9 Conclusion 444

P.10 References 445

Q The Millennial Time Capsule and L-1 Artifacts Museum 447

Q.1 Millennial Time Capsule 447

Q.2 Space Activities: A Broad Global Humanitarian Perspective. . . . 448

Q.2.1 A humanitarian concept based on space activities 448

Q.2.2 Technologies at the threshold of maturity 450

Q.3 The Lunar Human Repository architecture 450

Q.3.1 Merits of the architecture 452

Q.3.2 A natural evolution scenario for the facility 452

Q.3.3 The case for international subsidies 453

Q.4 Archives of humankind 453

Q.5 Conclusion, Millenial Time Capsule 454

Q.6 L-1 Artifacts Museum 454

R MALEO: Modular assembly in low Earth orbit 457

R.1 Abstract 457

R.2 Introduction 457

R.3 Development of the MALEO strategy 458

R.4 Configuration of the Lunar Habitation Base-1 (LHB-1) 461

R.5 Components of the Lunar Habitation Base-1 (LHB-1) 462

R.5.1 The Modular Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV) 465

R.5.2 The Lunar Landing System (LLS) 465

R.6 The lunar MALEO assembly and deployment of LHB-1 465

R.7 Principles of pre-stressed trusses 470

R.8 MALEO LHB-1 Structural System 470

R.9 MALEO: transportation loads and forces 471

R.10 Advantages of the MALEO strategy 472

R.11 The challenges 473

R.12 Conclusions 473

R.13 Acknowledgments 474

R.14 References 475

S Logistics for the Nomad Explorer assembly assist vehicle 477

5.1 Abstract 477

5.2 Introduction 477

5.3 Development of the Nomad Explorer strategy 478

5.4 The Nomad Explorer vehicle systems architecture 481

5.5 The problem with conventional extra-vehicular activity 487

5.6 Rationale for an alternative manned EVA system 487

5.7 The EVA Bell architecture 489

5.8 Challenges posed by the EVA Bell 490

5.9 Advantages of the EVA Bell system 492

5.10 Advantages of the Nomad Explorer strategy 492

5.11 Technology for the Nomad Explorer strategy 493

5.12 The Nomad Explorer budget 494

5.13 Conclusion 494

5.14 Acknowledgments 495

5.15 References 495

T Beyond our first Moonbase: The future of human presence on the Moon 497

T.1 Beginnings 497

T.2 Cradlebreak 498

T.2.1 Cast and sintered basalt 498

T.2.2 Lunar concrete, glass-glass composites (GGC), and silicon 498

T.3 A strategy for industrial diversification 498

T.3.1 Paying for the things we must import 499

T.4 The Moon from a settler's point of view 500

T.4.1 Making themselves at home 500

T.4.2 But they have to live underground, for heaven's sake! . . 501

T.4.3 What about the outdoorsmen amongst us? 501

T.4.4 Agriculture and mini-biospheres 503

T.4.5 One settlement, a world "doth not make" 504

T.4.6 Getting through the nightspan 504

T.4.7 The pattern emerges 504

T.5 The Necessary Gamble 504

T.5.1 Token presence or real settlement 504

U Lunar rock structures 507

U.1 Introduction 507

U.2 Combating the lunar environment 507

U.3 Rock structures 508

U.4 Rocks-tools - uses 508

U.5 Technology continuum dilemma 510

U.6 Merits and challenges 510

U.7 Challenges 510

U.8 Conclusion 511

U.9 References 512

V Rapid prototyping: Layered metals fabrication technology development for support of lunar exploration at NASA/MSFC 513

V.1 Introduction 513

V.2 Fabrication technologies overview 514

V.2.1 Fabrication processes discussion 515

V.2.2 Materials set discussion 516

V.2.3 Additive fabrication processes assessment 516

V.2.4 The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology 517

V.2.5 Material feasibility studies of selected materials 519

V.3 Conclusions 523

V.4 Acknowledgments 523

V.5 References 524

Bibliography 525

Index 551

This book is dedicated to the next generation of space adventurers:

Owen James, age 4, Tucson, Arizona,

"I would like to see the stars there." "I would like to bring my boat there."

Olivia James, age 7, Tucson, Arizona,

"I would like to see the flag and how it looks." "I would like to float around."

Brigitte Schrunk, age 9, Poway, California,

"I would like to do ballet on the Moon and leap clear across the stage."

Erik Schrunk, age 10, Poway, California,

"I would like to play basketball on the Moon and make a slam dunk every time." "I would like to fly on the Moon."

Chloe Saras Thangavelu, age 12, Palos Verdes, California,

"I would like to be on the US Volleyball team for the inaugural Lunar Olympics in 2032. Lunar gravity and genetic engineering will make me a fine competitor at 44 years old."

Chelsea Manon Lakshmi Thangavelu, age 9, Palos Verdes, California,

"I want to set up the first spare parts factory for the train and the rover. I want to be the first lunar millionaire."

O'Paul Roy Thangavelu, age 3, Palos Verdes, California,

... on seeing the illustration of the 345 Maglev train gliding down the lunar highlands into the mares:

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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