Contents

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Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

Foreword by Buzz Aldrin xxv

List of figures xxix

List of tables xxxv

Author biographies xxxvii

Introduction xxxix

1.1 The Spacefaring Age xxxix

1.2 Advantages and opportunities xl

1.2.1 Proximity to Earth xl

1.2.2 Availability of energy and material resources xl

1.2.3 Gravity xl

1.2.4 Protection from space hazards xli

1.2.5 Science opportunities xli

1.2.6 Education xlii

1.2.7 Commerce xlii

1.2.8 Earth benefits xliii

1.2.9 International cooperation xliii

1.2.10 Human survival xliii

1.2.11 Exploration of space xliv

1.3 The future Moon xliv

1.4 The Moon beckons xlvi

1 Lunar origins and physical features 1

1.1 The origin of the Moon 1

1.2 Physical features of the Moon 3

1.2.1 Mountain ranges - highlands and basin rings 4

1.2.2 Basins and basin rings 6

1.2.5 Ridges, lava tubes, and rilles 11

1.3 Exploration of the Moon 15

1.3.1 The Apollo experiments 15

1.3.2 Recent missions to the Moon 20

1.4 Summary 24

2 Science opportunities - engineering challenges 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Geoscience 25

2.2.1 Geologic reconnaissance missions 26

2.2.2 Field work 26

2.3 Astronomy from the Moon 28

2.3.1 Earth-based astronomy 29

2.3.2 Astronomy from Earth orbit 29

2.3.3 Moon-based astronomy 30

2.4 Other science opportunities 41

2.4.1 Cosmic radiation and the solar wind 41

2.4.2 Particle accelerators 42

2.4.3 Psychology and sociology 42

2.4.4 Physiology 42

2.5 Engineering challenges 43

2.5.1 Robots and tele-operations 43

2.5.2 Chemistry 44

2.5.3 Health-care challenges 44

2.5.4 Life-support systems 45

2.5.5 Mining and manufacturing operations in the lunar environment 46

2.6 Summary 47

3 Lunar resources 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Elements 49

3.3 The lunar regolith 51

3.5 Sunlight 52

3.5.1 Sun-synchronous operations and "Magellan routes" of discovery 52

3.6 Vacuum 53

3.7 Temperature profile 54

3.8 Physical mass of the Moon 54

3.9 Topography 55

3.10 Sterile environment 55

3.11 Low gravity 56

3.12 Orbital mechanics 56

3.13 Lagrange points 57

3.14 Summary 58

4 Lunar robotic and communication systems 59

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Objectives 59

4.2.1 Continued science investigations 59

4.2.2 Continuous operations 60

4.2.3 Mining and manufacturing 60

4.2.4 Preparing for the return of humans 60

4.3 Cost and schedule issues 61

4.3.1 Investment consortia: interdisciplinary and inter-institutional cooperation 62

4.4 Bootstrapping lunar development 63

4.5 Robotics technology for lunar base development 64

4.5.1 Introduction 65

4.5.2 Apollo experience with robots for exploration 65

4.5.3 International Space Station experience: robots for science, assembly and maintenance 65

4.5.4 Deep-ocean experience - production robots 67

4.6 Technological challenges 67

4.6.1 Latency 68

4.6.2 Bandwidth requirements 69

4.6.3 Infrastructure requirements 69

4.6.4 Lunar surface infrastructure requirements 71

4.7 The robot assistant 71

4.7.1 Evaluating robotic technology for the Moon 72

4.7.2 Difficulty aspects 72

4.7.3 Benefit aspects 73

4.8 Pervasive subtasks and capabilities 74

4.8.1 Acquiring imagery 74

4.8.2 Lessons learned from shuttle, space station, industry, and medicine 75

4.9 Recommendations 76

4.9.1 RoboTractor 76

4.9.2 Engineering standards 77

4.9.3 Incorporate a tele-robotic control mode into autonomous systems 77

4.9.4 Design early for robots 77

4.9.5 Plan ahead 78

4.9.6 Build a little, test a little 78

4.9.7 Develop robot surrogate capabilities 79

4.9.8 Mobility is a key 80

4.10 Launch vehicle capability 80

4.11 Conclusion 81

5 The first lunar base 83

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Lunar base site selection criteria 84

5.3 Mons Malapert 84

5.3.1 Site characteristics and mission opportunities 87

5.4 Initial robotic operations at the lunar base 87

5.5 The lunar "seed" 87

5.6 Candidate lunar seed: The Seleno-lab 88

5.6.1 Mission concept 88

5.6.2 Design requirements 88

5.6.3 Fixed-base facility 89

5.6.4 Design process 89

5.6.5 Investigation objectives 89

5.6.6 Operations 90

5.6.7 Production 90

5.6.8 Growth of the lunar base 90

5.7 Dash to the pole 91

5.8 Circumpolar "Magellan routes" excursions 92

5.9 International cooperation and commercial participation 92

5.10 The embryonic circumferential infrastructure 93

5.11 Summary 94

6 Return of humans to the Moon 97

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Precursor missions 97

6.3 Return of the humans 98

6.4 Human factors 99

6.4.1 The MALEO site office 100

6.4.2 Environmental control and life-support system (ECLSS) 101

6.4.3 Physico-chemical (non-biological) systems 102

6.4.4 Biological-biospheric systems 102

6.4.5 Medical care 103

6.5 LEA (lunar excursion activities) 103

6.5.1 Nomad Explorer 105

6.6 Growth of the first lunar base 105

6.7 Earth-Moon transportation systems 107

6.8 The lunar railroad 108

6.9 Power towers 111

6.10 Rail link to the south pole 113

6.11 The second lunar base 113

6.12 Summary 114

7 Circumferential lunar utilities 117

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Lunar electric power 117

7.2.1 Nuclear power 118

7.2.2 Solar electric power 119

7.3 The Lunar Power System (LPS) 120

7.4 Circumferential utilities 121

7.5 Construction of the utilities infrastructure 122

7.5.1 Lunar telecommunications network 123

7.5.2 Lunar pipeline system 123

7.5.3 Flywheel farm 124

7.5.4 The Newton-Shackleton cable car system 124

7.6 Development of the south polar region 124

7.6.1 Lunar agriculture 126

7.6.2 Emergence of lunar cities 127

7.7 Summary 129

8 The Planet Moon 131

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 Global development 131

8.3 Cislunar transport and logistics systems 131

8.3.1 Earth spaceports 132

8.3.2 The Earth orbital station 133

8.3.3 Cislunar vehicles 133

8.3.4 Lunar orbital station 135

8.3.5 Lunar lander craft 135

8.4 Lunar base port 136

8.4.1 Retirement and rehabilitation 136

8.5 The Maglev rail system 139

8.5.1 The Sun-synchronous railroad 140

8.5.2 The 345th meridian magnetic-levitation high-speed transport train 140

8.5.3 The ballistic cargo delivery system 142

8.6 Science projects 142

8.6.1 Astronomy 144

8.6.2 The quarantine and biohazard facilities experimentation . 145

8.6.3 Hadron collider 145

8.7 Tourism on the lunar continent 146

8.8 Next-generation transportation systems 147

8.8.1 Earth-Moon cycler 147

8.8.2 Tethers 150

8.8.3 Space elevators 151

8.8.4 Mass drivers 153

8.9 Summary 154

9 Governance of the Moon 157

9.1 Introduction 152

9.2 Lunar Government Organization 157

9.3 Lunar governance and the Outer Space Treaties 158

9.4 Space law 160

9.5 Creation of a new lunar government 161

9.5.1 The a-posteriori approach to lunar governance 161

9.5.2 The a-priori approach to a new government 162

9.6 Port authorities 163

9.6.1 The LEDA model of lunar governance 163

9.7 Long-Term Planning and Coordination of Lunar Science and Development Projects 165

9.7.1 Lunar resource management 165

9.7.2 Standards for lunar development 166

9.7.3 Fundraising for the lunar development 166

9.8 Growth of the Lunar Government 167

9.9 Summary 168

10 Endless frontiers 169

10.1 Introduction 169

10.2 "Spaceport" Moon 169

10.3 Three emerging technologies 171

10.3.1 Solar sails 171

10.3.2 Energy transmission from the Moon 174

10.3.3 Solar power satellites 175

10.4 Exploration and development of the solar system 175

10.4.1 Mercury 175

10.4.2 Venus 177

10.4.3 Near-Earth objects (NEOs) 178

10.4.4 Earth 182

10.4.5 Mars 184

10.4.6 The asteroid belt 190

10.4.7 Comets 190

10.4.8 Jupiter 191

10.4.9 Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune 192

10.4.10 Pluto, Eris, and Sedna 192

10.4.11 The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud 193

10.5 Robotic missions to the stars 193

10.5.1 The cosmic "seed" 193

10.5.2 Robotic missions to the Proxima Centauri star system . 194

10.6 Human missions to the stars 196

10.6.1 The great diaspora 197

10.7 Summary 197

11 Conclusion 199

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