Cover In this scene by artist Paul DiMare, a crew from an excursion rover surveys a site for lunar settlement expansion. Two kilometers away, a maglev train stops to provide logistics support to Newton, the first lunar city. Newton is a rapidly growing international lunar settlement, shown in the background, that is home to 900 people. Roughly half of the population is crew who look after operations and construction projects while the other half consists of scientists, artists, business men and women, and tourists. Novelty "made in Luna'' products, including fancy crystal and tableware crafted by artisans at Newton, are regularly shipped to planet Earth in cargo cyclers. The mix of international scientific projects, commercial operations, and tourism keeps the lunar economy strong and growing at a fast pace.

1.1 Computer simulation of collision hypothesis 3

1.2 View of the Moon 5

1.3 Lunar far side 5

1.4 Orientale Basin 7

1.5 Imbrium Basin 7

1.6 Meteor Crater, Arizona 9

1.7 Moltke Crater 9

1.8 Euler Crater 10

1.9 Schrodinger Crater 10

1.10 Lunar Orbiter 3 oblique view of Murchison Crater 12

1.11 A lava tube 13

1.12 View of Hadley Rille from the surface 14

1.13 Apollo landing sites 16

1.14 The Clementine spacecraft 21

1.15 Lunar Prospector Satellite 22

1.16 European SMART-1 Spacecraft 23

2.1 Viewing configuration of telescopes 31

2.2 Interferometry array of telescopes 33

2.3 Global placement of telescopes on the Moon 35

2.4 Orion Nebula 37

2.5 Supernova 1987A 37

2.6 Hubble deep field 40

3.1 Typical diurnal temperature profile of the Moon 55

3.2 Earth-Moon Lagrange points 57

4.1 Artist's rendering of Mars Rover 64

4.2 Special-Purpose Dexterous Manipulator 66

4.3 Robotic systems for the Japanese Experiment Module 67

4.4 AERcam-Sprint robotic camera 75

4.5 The microconical fitting and tools for use with the International Space Station 78

4.6 The Robonaut 79

4.7 Mobility methods in robots 80

5.1 Radar image of the south polar region of the Moon 85

5.2 Clementine 750 nm image of Mons Malapert 85

5.3 Newton Base at the summit of Mons Malapert 86

5.4 Tele-operation of robotic devices on the Moon 91

5.5 A model of the nascent lunar economy 93

5.6 A swarm of robots explores the south polar region 94

6.1 Launch of the Lockheed Martin Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle 98

6.2 Bigelow Aerospace Inflatable Habitat in low Earth orbit 99

6.3 The MALEO office on the Moon 100

6.4 Human system input/output 101

6.5 Telemedicine assisted surgery on the Moon 104

6.6 Concepts for spacesuits 106

6.7 Battery-recharging station for Lunar Excursion Vehicle 107

6.8 Human/robot synergy on the Moon 108

6.9 Earth-Moon transit vehicles 109

6.10 Smart railroad track segments 110

6.11 The first lunar railroad 111

6.12 Multipurpose power towers 112

6.13 Depiction of initial rail line in the south polar region 114

6.14 Shackleton Crater base at the south pole 115

7.1 The Lunar Power System 120

7.2 Circumferential electric grid at 85° south latitude 121

7.3 A flywheel farm 125

7.4 The Newton-Shackleton cable car system 125

7.5 Utility infrastructure grid at the south pole 126

7.6 Railroad operations in the south polar region 127

7.7 Lunar base 128

8.1 Earth space port 132

8.2 Two-stage Earth to LEO transport 133

8.3 International Space Station 134

8.4 Lunar orbital and landing craft 134

8.5 Newton Base at Mons Malapert 137

8.6 A mall at Newton Base 138

8.7 High-speed maglev transport on the Moon 139

8.8 The sun-synchronous railroad 141

8.9 The 345th Meridian rail network 142

8.10 The ballistic parcel cargo delivery system 143

8.11 Optical interferometry at Copernicus Crater 144

8.12 Biohazard laboratory 146

8.13 The maglev sightseeing train 148

8.14 View of the lunar landscape from the club car 148

8.15 Sightseeing maglev train at the south pole 149

8.16 Rapid prototyping and manufacturing 151

8.17 Operation of an orbital tether cargo system 152

8.18 Terminus of the L1/lunar space elevator on the Moon 153

8.19 Launch of manned spacecraft from the Moon 154

9.1 Government organization of the Moon 158

10.1 Solar sail 172

10.2 Laser beam propulsion of a solar sail from the Moon 173

10.3 Laser propulsion of solar for Moon-Mars transit missions 173

10.4 Radar maps of Mercury 176

10.5 A lunar-made solar sail maneuvers to a hover position above Mercury 177

10.6 Solar sail shade for cooling Venus 178

10.7 Photograph of the main-belt asteroid Gaspra 180

10.8 Solar sail transportation of asteroid material 181

10.9 World energy consumption 183

10.10 Mars 185

10.11 Solar power satellite 187

10.12 Lunar-made solar power and communication satellites at Mars 188

10.13 Utilities infrastructure at Mars 189

10.14 Initial trajectory of Earth-Moon-Mars Cycler 189

10.15 Europa 191

10.16 Submarine robotic devices in the oceans of Europa 192

10.17 Interstellar sail cruiser approaching asteroid at Proxima Centuri 196

A.1 ATHLETE Robotic rover 206

A.2 Concept of operations for the Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer. . 207

A.3 Channel and crater near the peak of Mons Malaper 208

A.4 Conceptual design of a robot that fabricates solar cells from lunar regolith . 209

A.5 Payback for long-term enabling robotic technology tasks 215

A.6 Payback for robotic tasks in conjunction with human activity 217

A.7 Future robotic development tasks 219

A.8 Telescoping mast used for a communications transceiver 221

A.9 EZ-Reacher pick-up tool 223

A.10 Marsokhod Rover 227

A.11 Schematic of a typical fuel cell 228

A.12 Multi-purpose dirt-work machine 229

A.13 Examples of drilling units requiring human operation 231

A.14 Preliminary design of the RoboTractor 231

B.1 Minerals found in mare regoliths 237

B.2 Lunar ferroan anorthosite #60025 237

B.3 Image of lunar agglutinate 239

B.4 Extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles 239

B.5 Orange and black glass spheres from the Apollo 17 landing site 241

B.6 Medium and small craters 243

B.7 Illustrations of skewness and kurtosis 244

B.8 Definition of roundness 247

B.9 Graphical display of grain size 249

B.10 Cumulative weight distribution curve of a lunar soil sample 250

B.11 Size distribution histogram of a lunar soil sample 250

B.12 Scanning electron microscope image of lunar dust grains 252

B.13 Horizon glow 253

B.14 Astronaut sketches of lunar surface events 254

B.15 The lunar lawnmower 255

C.1 In-flight sustained shockwave plasma 259

C.2 Lunar agglutinate particles 263

C.3 Nanophase iron globules on a lunar agglutinate 264

C.4 Recommended modal abundances to simulate mare and highland soils . . . . 265

C.5 Mixtures of raw materials to simulate soils of Apollo landing areas 266

D.1 Manufacturing on the Moon 270

D.2 Structure of a photovoltaic cell 272

D.3 A completed boule of synthetic ilmenite 275

D.4 Control mechanism of a pneumatic conveying system 281

D.5 Lunar electromagnetic conveying device 283

D.6 Catapult and slingshot transportation of materials 285

D.7 Grain-size effects on the strength of sintered lunar materials 286

D.8 Temperature effects on the strength of sintered basalt grains 286

D.9 Phase equilibria relationships are altered by microwave heating 287

D.10 Interlocking designs will facilitate robotic construction 289

D.11 Reduction-assisted sintering 289

D.12 Induction creation of magnetic polarity on bricks 290

D.13 Construction using smart bricks 291

D.14 Incorporation of traceability in construction components 291

D.15 Metal objects formed using carbonyl chemical vapor deposition process. . . . 294

D.16 Chemical vapor deposition system 295

D.17 The goal of lunar manufacturing: autonomy 296

E.1 Ilmenite reduction by hydrogen 313

E.2 Hydrogen reduction of glass as a function of temperature 318

E.3 Hydrogen reduction of glass as a function of time 319

E.4 Chlorine plasma reduction: experimental apparatus 324

E.5 Process flow of carbon monoxide silicate reduction system 326

E.6 Molten silicate (magma) electrolysis 329

E.7 Vapor phase electrolysis 333

E.8 Ion (plasma) separation 334

E.9 HCl dissolution and electrolysis 336

E.10 H2SO4 dissolution and electrolysis 337

E.11 Lithium or sodium reduction 339

E.12 Aluminum reduction of anorthite 341

E.13 Ion sputtering 343

E.14 Prototype LUNOX plant, side view 346

E.15 Protoype LUNOX plant, top view 346

E.16 Suitcase-size hydrogen-reduction plant 348

G.1 Proposed quality control system of the lunar government 375

K.1 Mass driver on the Moon 401

K.2 Schematic of mass driver launch and capture operation 402

M.1 Locations and number of sightings of lunar transient phenomena 414

M.2 Two surveyor images of the lunar glow 416

M.3 Lunar horizon glow as sketched by astronaut Gene Cernan 416

M.4 Location of the Apollo site where "rusty rock'' was found 418

M.5 Core Section Diagram showing where the "rusty rocks'' were found 419

M.6 The Reiner Gamma magnetic anomaly 422

Q.1 Archives of humankind storage 454

Q.2 Artifacts Museum 455

R.1 Lunar surface assembly 459

R.2 The MALEO strategy 460

R.3 Schematic lunar base module configuration study 462

R.4 Components of a three-module lunar habitation base 463

R.5 International Space Station assisted MALEO LHB-1 assembly 466

R.6 MALEO LHB-1 assembly connected to the ISS 466

R.7 MALEO LHB-1 truss superstructure 467

R.8 MALEO LHB-1 module assembly 467

R.9 MALEO LHB-1 module insertion 467

R.10 MALEO LHB-1 assembly complete 468

R.11 LHB-1/MOTV translunar injection 468

R.12 LLS/LHB-1 lunar orbit rendezvous 468

R.13 LLS/LHB-1 de-orbit and descent 469

R.14 MALEO LHB-1/LLS lunar surface touchdown 469

R.15 The effect of pre-stress on strain 469

R.16 Load bearing 471

5.1 Stationary and mobile extraterrestrial bases 479

5.2 Schematic of Nomad Explorer and Autonomous Modular Common Lander 480

5.3 The Nomad Explorer mission plan 482

5.4 Schematic of the Nomad Explorer systems 483

5.5 The Nomad Explorer: a possible configuration 484

5.6 Comparison of conventional EVA and EVA Bell systems 488

5.7 Nomad Explorer payload assembly assist sequence 491

T.1 Channeling of light in underground habitats 502

T.2 Concept for early lavatube outpost 502

T.3 Luna-tube skiing on the Moon 503

U.1 Hesperia Lunar/Mars Base Plan, Phase 1 509

U.2 Hesperia Lunar/Mars Evolved Base Plan, Phase II 509

V.1 ECLSS Component 520

V.2 Turbopump Component 520

V.3 CLV End Fitting 520

V.4 Powder Cross-Section 521

V.5 EBM Fabricated Test Samples 522

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