The free space environment is hazardous to both biological systems and hardware. Background cosmic radiation levels in free space are ten times greater than the maximum acceptable levels for individuals who work in radiation environments on Earth. In addition, solar flare radiation will be fatal, in a matter of hours to days, to anyone in space who is not protected by adequate shielding. Similarly, cosmic and solar flare radiations degrade electro-mechanical systems. Micrometeorites are a direct threat to humans and equipment, and solar-thermal stress is a significant problem for any structure in space. The solution to these problems is to simply "go underground". By creating underground compartments on the Moon, humans and equipment can be completely shielded from the hazards of space in Earth-like conditions, and the only serious risk to astronauts will occur during the three-day transit between the Earth and the Moon.
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