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16mm Data Acquisition Camera (DAC), 48, 73

Ackermann steering, 39, 142 A.C. Delco Electronics Division, 46 Advanced Research Projects Agency

(ARPA), 3 Aft Pallet Assembly, 178 Aldrin, Edwin, 17, 59 Allen, Joe, 75, 101

Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer, 246

America Command Module, 173, 207, 209

Apollo 12, 35, 49

Apollo 14, 35, 49

Apollo 17 Flight Crew support Team, 189

Apollo Applications Program (AAP), 7, 10,

Apollo Logistics Support System (ALSS), 5

Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package

(ALSEP), 11, 111, 119 Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, 41 Apollo Site Selection Board, 132, 134, 166 Armstrong, Neil, 17, 57 Assembly, Test and Launch Operations

(ATLO), 232 Astrogeology Branch, U.S. Geologic Survey, 7 Athena, 226-228 Augustine Report, 263

Beattie, Don, 67

Bekker, Mieczyslaw G., 4, 13, 212 Bell Aerospace Systems, 7 Bellcomm, 68, 97 Bendix Corporation, 5, 17-18, 82 Blue Rover, 212

Boeing Aircraft Corporation, 5, 17-19, 82 Bonita Lava Flows, 62 Bradford, Len, 13

Branch of Surface Planetary Exploration, 72 Bush, George H., 258 Bush, George W., 263, 277

Caltech, 69

Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2 Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV), 277 Carr, Gerald, 23, 67 Casper Command Module, 138 Cernan, Eugene, 1

Challenger Lunar Module, 172-175, 178, 205, 207

Charlie Brown Command Module, 163 ChemCam, 245 Chrysler Corporation, 5, 17 Cinder Lake, 65, 75 Clarke, Arthur C., 2 Colliers Magazine, 1 Columbia Space Shuttle, 263 Columbia Accident Investigation Board, 263 Computer Aided Remote Driving (CARD), 212

Conquest of the Moon, The, 2 Costes, Nicholas, 33, 35 Cowart, Eugene, 52, 55

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), 266, 268, 277

Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), 277 Critical Design Review (CDR), 23 Creel, Ronald A., 46, 82, 179

Dead-reckoning systems, 42 Debus, Kurt, 125 Decadal Planning Team, 263 Descartes, 75, 129, 147 Descent Image Motion Estimation

Subsystem (DIMES), 231 Directional Gyro Unit (DGU), 43, 47 Discovery Program, 213 Disney, Walt, 1

Drive Controller Electronics (DCE), 46-47 Dual Mode Lunar Roving Vehicle

(DMLRV), 271-272 Dual-Mode Roving Vehicles for Apollo Lunar

Surface Exploration, 12 Duke, Charles "Charlie", 23, 27, 40, 53, 67, 71

Eagle Picher, 43, 96 Elachi, Charles, 240 England, Tony, 67, 75, 136, 143-144 Endeavour Command Module, 96-97, 125, 128

Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL), 218

Exploration of Space, The, 2

Exploration Rover Concepts and Development

Challenges, 272 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, 280 Explorer, 65, 75 Explorer I, 2

Extra-Vehicular Activity Robotic Assistants, 277

Falcon Lunar Module, 88, 99, 112, 116, 124 Fendell, Ed, 107, 144, 148, 154, 157, 178, 196,

199, 203, 206 Fender extension, 41, 149-150, 179-180, 184-191

Field Integrated Design and Operations

(FIDO), 227-228, 231 First Lunar Outpost, 262 Fletcher, James, 97

Flight Crew Support Division, 37 Flight Unit Rover, 217

Gernsback, Hugo, 2 General Electric Corp., 5 General Purpose Heat Source, 271 General Motors Defense Research

Laboratories (GMDRL), 4, 7, 14, 18, 23, 27, 33, 75 Geochemistry Working Group, 10 Geologic Rover ("Grover"), 65, 67, 69 Geology Working Group, 10 Gilruth, Robert, 27 Golden, Daniel, 224, 262 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 4 Gordon, Richard, 65, 75 Griffin, Michael, 262, 277, 280 Ground-Commanded Television Assembly

(GCTA), 30, 48-50, 72 Group for Exploration Planning, 11 Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., 3-5, 13, 17

H-1 engine, 15

Hadley-Apennine, 68, 89, 129 Hadley Delta, 68, 99 Hand controller, 40 Head, Jim, 68, 72, 91, 170 Hirsh, O. M., 27 Huntsville, Alabama, 13

ILC Dover, 231 Image Transform, 181 Irwin, Jim, 65, 72, 75, 141

J-2 engine, 15

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 209, 212

Jupiter IRBM, 15

Jones, Eric, 41

Kennedy, John, 3, 57 Kennedy Space Center (KSC), 21

Operations and Checkout Building, 85 Kosmo, Joe, 276 Kudish, Henry, 21, 24

Leadership and America's Future in Space, 255

Life Magazine, 1 Low-Gain Antenna, 48 Light Utility Rover, 272 Low, George M., 97 LRV, 13, 15, 16, 18 Acceptance, Checkout and Test, 88 Aft Pallet Assembly, 77 Crew Station Mockup, 76 Dust Profile Test Program, 35 Deployment Trainer, 71 Flight units, 22

Handling and Installation Tool, 87 1-G Trainer, 22, 69-70 1/6 weight trainer, 22 "Pogo" trainer, 75 Qualification Test Unit, 23, 28, 48 Sampler, 199 Wheel construction, 39 LRV Subsystems Mobililty Subsystem, 23, 29, 46 Electrical Power Subsystem, 23, 43 Navigation Subsystem, 23, 41 Communication Subsystem, 23, 48 Thermal Control Subsystem, 23, 43-44, 51

Crew Station Subsystem, 23, 31, 39, 43 Control and Display Subsystem, 23, 31,

39-40, 43-44 Deployment Subsystem, 23 LRV Project Office, 21 Lunar Communications Relay Unit (LCRU),

30, 48, 73, 103, 178 Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), 7, 13 Lunar Flying Unit (LFU), 10 Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV), 9 Lunar Grand Prix, 121, 143 Lunar Hand Tool Carrier, 31, 79, 84, 178 Lunar Logistics System (LLS), 3 Lunar Mobility Studies, 3 Lunar Mission Development Vehicle

(LMDV), 7 Lunar Orbiter, 68 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, 270 Lunar Roving Task Team, 15 Lunar Roving Vehicle Concept: A Case Study, 4

Lunar Rover Programs, 5

Lunar soil simulation studies, 35

Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), 278

Lunar Surface Engineering Properties/

Trafficability Panel, 33, 35 Lunar Scientific Survey Module (LSSM), 3,

Lunar Wheel and Drive Experimental Test Program, 37

Manned Space Science Coordinating

Committee, 7 Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), 11, 19 Marathon Basin, 59 Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains), 89 Mars Climate Orbiter, 224 Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR), 213

Mars Express, 251

Mars Global Surveyor, 223

Mars Hand Lens Imager, 246

Mars Odyssey, 230

Mars Pathfinder, 216, 226

Mars Polar Lander, 224

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, 251

Mars Sample Return, 227

Mars Science Laboratory, 243, 271

Mars Science Microrover, 214

Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), 1,

3-4, 18, 33 Mast Camera (MastCam), 245 Meteor Crater, 57-58 Merriam Crater, 72, 75 Michoud assembly facility, 17 Mishkin, Andrew, 215 Mitchell, Edgar, 75 Mills, Rutledge "Putty", 63, 67, 75 Mobility Research Laboratory (MOLAB),

3-5, 63-64 Mobile Geologic Laboratory, 7, 62 Mobility Test Article (MTA), 3, 7 Morea, Saverio, 15, 17, 19, 24, 27, 33, 41, 55, 101

Mueller, George E., 15

Muehlberger, William, 75, 91, 132, 170, 203

National Aeronautics and Space

Administration, 2 NASA Exploration Team (NEXT), 263 Navigation Camera (Navcam), 230 National Commission on Space, 254 Nation Space Council, 258

Northrop Space Laboratories, 3, 5 North Complex, 119

Opportunity, 11, 233-237, 239-242 Office of Manned Space Flight, 13, 15, 57 Orion Lunar Module, 129, 134, 139, 146, 159 Orocopia Mountains, 71

Paine, Thomas O., 129, 254 Panoramic camera (Pancam), 227, 242 Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), 230 Parker, Robert, 75, 169, 170, 199 Pathfinder, 217-218, 221, 226 Pathfinder Planetary Rover Naviation

Testbed, 213 Pavlics, Ferenc, 4-5, 12-14, 29, 37, 55-56, 113

Personal Life Support System (PLSS), 5, 48,

55, 182 Popular Science, 7 Pioneering the Space Frontier, 254 Power Profile Analysis, 169 Project Constellation, 268 Project Gemini, 1 Project Horizon, 2-3 Project Viking, 209

Radiation Assessment Detector, 247 Radioisotope Power Systems, 271 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

(RTG), 249, 271 Reduced Gravity Training, 82 Ride, Sally K., 255 Romano, Samuel, 4, 7, 13-14, 113 Rocker-bogie suspension, 213 Rees, Eberhard, 27, 52-53 Request for Proposals (RFP), 5 Rocketdyne F-1A engine, 262 Roving Vehicles for Apollo Lunar Exploration

Program, 11 Requirement Assessment for Lunar Roving

Vehicle, 15 Russell, Sam, 49

SA-511, 134

SA-512, 171

S-band High-Gain Antenna, 30, 48

Schaber, Gerald G., 57, 62, 68, 91, 121 Scholtz, Arthur, 85

Schmitt, Harrison "Jack", 60, 65, 69, 71-72,

75, 84, 170 Science, Crew, Operations and Utility

Testbed (SCOUT), 274 Scott, David R., 59, 65, 69, 72, 75, 79, 141 Seamans, Robert, 5 Sevier, Jerry "Jack", 77, 91, 168 Shoemaker, Eugene, 57, 62, 69, 89 Signal Processing Unit (SPU), 46-47 Silver-cadmium batteries, 5 Silver, Leon T., 69, 71-72, 75, 78, 91, 108, 144

Silver-zinc batteries, 43 Sisson, Jim, 173, 179 Slayton, Deke, 79, 89, 96, 131 Sky Crane, 249-250 Snoopy Lunar Module, 163 Smith, E. G., 169 Sojourner, 217-219, 226 Soviet Union, 3 SP-88, 7 SP-157, 11

Space Exploration Initiative, 258 Space Flight, 21

Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter, 171 Space Support Equipment (SSE), 44 Spirit, 11, 233-239, 241-242 Sputnik I, 2

Squyers, Steve, 225, 238-239 Staff Paper SP63-205, 4 Stafford, Thomas P., 15 St. George Crater, 68 Statement of Work, 16, 23 Sterling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), 271

Summer Conference on Lunar Exploration &

Science, 7 Sun shadow device, 41, 43 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment, 182 Surface Working Panel, 68 Surveyor, 4, 33

Surveyor Lunar Roving Vehicle (SLRV), 62, 212

Synthesis Group, 262 System Integration Model, 217 Swann, Gordon, 58, 68, 75, 77, 89, 103, 144

Thunderball, 7 Thermal radiators, 46 Tinnin, Bill, 65, 75 To Rule the Night, 97 Traction drive, 32

Traverse Gravimeter Experiment, 178 Traverse Planning Subcommittee, 168

U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, 2-3, 33

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 21 U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station, 33

United Shoe Machinery, 32

Vanguard, 2

Vaughn, Otha "Skeet", 33, 169 Viking 1, 211 Viking 2,211

Warm Electronics Box, 217 Wendt, Guenther, 97, 136, 173 Weiler, Edward, 240 Westinghouse, 49 Wilhelms, Don, 58

Zulawski, Jerszy, 2

Russell Bedford Xyz Machine Tools

Plate 1-6 Deployment tests of the Lunar Roving Vehicle flight units were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. (NASA/MSFC)

Vehicle Lunar Rover Deployment

Plate 7 LRV-1 on the Handling and Installation Tool fixture. The LRV was a marvel of mechanical packaging. Note the springs used to deploy the forward chassis. (NASA/MSFC)

Plate 8 Detail of the folded aft chassis. Note the ribs in the aluminum panels to increase rigidity. (NASA/MSFC)

Plate 9 This photo clearly shows the internal construction of the bump stop to prevent complete collapse of the wire mesh wheel and damage to the rim upon severe impact with large rocks on the lunar surface. (NASA/MSFC)

Nasa Suspension Wires

Plate 10 Close-up of the LRV traction drive, suspension control arms and the damper. (NASA/MSFC)

Plate 11 Jim Irwin and Dave Scott take the Geologic Rover (Grover) around the artificial crater field created by the U.S. Geologic Survey at Cinder Lake, near Flagstaff, Arizona in November 1970. (NASA)

Plate 12 Caltech geologist Lee Silver points out a geologic formation at Rio Grande Gorge, New Mexico to the prime and backup crews for Apollo 16. John Young is on the right. Above them in the daytime sky is the target of John Young and Charlie Duke's mission. (NASA)

Plate 13 Charlie Duke and John Young are shown training with the LRV 1-G Trainer at Kennedy Space Center during January 1972. Duke is carrying the Self-Recording Penetrometer to be used for lunar soil mechanics data. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 14 John Young drives the 1-G trainer during EVA training at KSC. The Commander's EVA suit has red stripes on the arms, legs and helmet for positive identification in photographs and during TV transmissions. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 15 The 1-G Trainer is completely reflected in the gold visor of Charlie Duke's helmet during training at Kennedy Space Center. Good view of the 16mm film Data Acquisition Camera. Note the lunar drill core stems. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 16 Apollo 17 Commander Eugene Cernan and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt trained extensively at KSC with the 1-G Trainer. Schmitt has the LRV Sampler, a new tool he will use for collecting lunar samples from his seat on the LRV. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 17 Apollo 17 backup Commander John Young communicates with Eugene Cernan on the 1-G Trainer during indoor training at KSC in August 1972. Harrison Schmitt is examining the LRV sampler. Ease of use of lunar tools with the EVA gloves was vital in training. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 18 LRV-1 undergoes testing with the Lunar Module Falcon in the Operations and Checkout Building at KSC. Specific tests were run to ensure that electrical components did not cause interference during communication between the LRV and the Lunar Module. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 19 LRV-1 undergoing fit checks with the Lunar Module Falcon. Lunar Module Pilot Jim Irwin is standing closest to the LRV with his hand on the Handling and Installation Tool fixture. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 20 Apollo 15 Commander David Scott (on right) observes a deployment test of LRV-1 from the Lunar Module Falcon. Note the LRV's deformed wheels as a result of stowage. The wheels achieved their proper configuration in a short period of time. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 21 LRV-1 is pictured stowed aboard the Lunar Module Falcon. It would later receive its own protective thermal blanket. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 22 On a special press day in May 1971 for Apollo 15, David Scott and Jim Irwin took the 1-G Trainer out to explain the LRV's equipment and many features and to answer questions about the use of the LRV on their mission to Hadley-Apennine. (NASA/KSC)

Plate 23 The crew of Apollo 15 included mission Commander David Scott, Command Module Pilot Al Worden, and Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin. (NASA)

Fus Wallpaper

Plate 24 Apollo 15 was launched on 26 July 1971. Just after liftoff the four outboard F-1 engines of the Saturn V were gimbaled to point the launch vehicle several degrees away from the Launch Umbilical Tower until it cleared the tower. (NASA)

Plate 25 Watching the launch of Apollo 15 are (from left) Lt. Gen. Samuel Phillips, former Apollo Program Director; Dr. Wernher von Braun; NASA Administrator James C. Fletcher, and NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low who was previously the Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager. (NASA)

Plate 26 Jim Irwin works at the back the LRV at the end of EVA-1 in this photo taken by David Scott. The chevron pattern from the wheels are clearly evident in the lunar soil. The LRV's left front fender extension is missing, probably lost during a traverse. (NASA)

Plate 27 After deploying the American flag, David Scott photographed Jim Irwin offering his salute, in one of the most famous pictures of the Apollo era. Hadley Delta towers in the distance. (NASA)

Plate 28 During the Station 6A stop, David Scott placed the sampling tongs on top of the boulder to lend scale, and took this photo. The location was so steep, Jim Irwin had to stop the LRV from sliding, with the left rear wheel actually off the surface. (NASA)

Plate 29 Jim Irwin took this photo of the Lunar Module Falcon with one landing leg in a shallow depression during EVA-2. In the distance, David Scott is walking away from the LRV toward the Central Station. (NASA)

Plate 30 At the end of EVA-3, David Scott drove the LRV out to the VIP site, so named as the best position for the TV camera to record the liftoff Falcon's ascent stage. Behind the LRV, Scott placed a small figure and the plaque listing fallen astronauts and cosmonauts, and then placed a small red-covered Bible against the hand controller. (NASA)

Plate 31 The crew of Apollo 15 is greeted aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Okinawa on 7 August 1971 by a jubilant Robert R. Gilruth, first Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center, later the Johnson Spacecraft Center. (NASA)

Plate 32 The first detailed 3D computer model of the Lunar Roving Vehicle was created by Don McMillan, who also used special software to create the first animated deployment sequence of the LRV from the Lunar Module. Working from photographs of the LRV flight units, McMillan modeled each part using LightWave 3D software to create the final assembled 3D model and animations, more than 30 years after Apollo 17. See the Appendix for information on these creations. (Don McMillan)

Plate 33 The crew of Apollo 16 included Commander John Young (center), Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly (left) and Lunar Module Pilot Charlie Duke. (NASA/ MSFC)

Nasa Crawler

Plate 34 SA-511, on the Mobile Launch Platform, is moved to launch complex LC-39A by the crawler transporter on 13 December 1971. Problems with the Command Module Reaction Control System required the Saturn's return to the VAB. It would finally launch on 16 April 1972. (NASA)

Plate 35 This curved plaque was fastened to a leg of the Lunar Module Orion descent stage. One day it will be read by a future generation of lunar explorers who return to the Descartes Highlands. (NASA)

Area Space Landing Conspiracy

Plate 36 Charlie Duke took this photo of the LM and LRV at the start of EVA-2. Note the lunar dust on the right rear fender of the LRV. John Young collects a sample behind the rover. Dust was a pervasive problem on the Moon and the LRV had to routinely be brushed clean of the dark, abrasive lunar soil. (NASA)

Lunar Roving Vehicle Fender

Plate 37 To ensure proper alignment of the high-gain antenna, the mission commander looked through a small window of the alignment scope until the Earth was visible. He then locked the antenna in position with the antenna boom, as Young is doing in this picture. The right rear fender extension was torn from its extension rails at Station 8 during EVA-2. No attempt was made to repair it. (NASA)

Plate 38 The Grand Prix was a test of the LRV under hard acceleration, turning and braking, recorded by Charlie Duke with the 16111111 Data Acquisition Camera, from which this still was taken. John Young has both front wheels off the lunar surface while sending rooster tails of lunar soil from the LRV's wheels. (NASA/ALSJ)

Plate 39 An excellent view of the Descartes Highlands taken by Charlie Duke from the LRV during EVA-3. The TV camera featured a new Sun shade used for the first time on Apollo 16, which dramatically reduced glare on the lens. (NASA)

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Digital Cameras For Beginners

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Although we usually tend to think of the digital camera as the best thing since sliced bread, there are both pros and cons with its use. Nothing is available on the market that does not have both a good and a bad side, but the key is to weigh the good against the bad in order to come up with the best of both worlds.

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