An experiment to study the origin and makeup of cosmic rays over a three-year period. ACCESS will be attached to the International Space Station and is due to replace AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) in about 2007. Its two instruments, the Hadron Calorimeter and the Transition Radiation Detector, will measure the elemental makeup of cosmic rays from lightest nuclei to heaviest and determine if the flux of high-energy electrons in cosmic rays varies with direction, as would be the case if some come from local sources.
An instrument built by NASA to make extremely accurate measurements of air temperature, humidity, cloud makeup, and surface temperature. The data collected by AIRS will be used by scientists around the world to better understand weather and climate, and by the National Weather Service and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) to improve the accuracy of their weather and climate models. AIRS is carried aboard the Aqua spacecraft of NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System), which was launched in May 2002.
Astronomers use a prism or an instrument called a spectroscope to split up the light from stars and study the brightness of different wavelengths. A spectrum can reveal the wavelengths at which the star is brightest, allowing its surface temperature to be calculated. Most spectra are crossed by a number of dark lines, where light of certain wavelengths is absorbed between us and the star. These absorption lines are caused by atoms of different elements in the star's own atmosphere absorbing radiation with certain energies. Each element absorbs or emits specific wavelengths, allowing astronomers to study the makeup of stars, planets, and nebulae.
Abstract To optimize dark current, sensitivity, and cosmetics, the OmegaCAM detectors need to be operated at a temperature of 155 K. The detector mosaic, with a total area of 630 cm directly facing the dewar entrance window, is exposed to a considerable heat load. This optimization can only be achieved with a high performance cooling system. This paper describes the cooling system, which is built to make the most efficient use of the cooling power of liquid nitrogen. This is done by forcing nitrogen through a series of well designed and strategically distributed heat exchangers. Results and performance of the system recorded during the past months of system testing are presented.
Measuring the chemical makeup of extra-solar planetary atmospheres will one day allow us to search for the markers of life beyond Earth. All living things breathe and this changes the composition of the atmosphere in readily detectable ways. Light-harvesting plants will impose their own colourful 'biomarkers' on the light reflected from planetary surfaces.
Because of known information on the makeup of the light coming from any given object, one should theoretically be able to predict how effective the intensification will be. In reality, part of the fascination is that one never knows exactly how well it will work in practice, and it is quite possible to be completely bowled over when least expecting it I will never forget my first view of M82 with intensification. With such a large and bright galaxy of its particular spectral makeup, I knew it would be good. In practice, though, I was stunned by all the tangled detail and brightness suddenly visible to me, where only a formless smudge had been before. The range of light, shading and dark veins was truly astounding, regardless of any expectation I had.
The long readout time for Mosaic-2 is principally a result of slow parallel clocking required by the SITe002A CCDs. The CCD44-82 can experience output amplifier glow if V_OD is driven too high. With the 18.5 V in use we see the onset of this glow. Our CCID20s required special treatment with dry air plus heat to improve their QE and cosmetics. The current maximum QE is 68 at 500 nm and we are working to improve it. To obtain good PSF LBNL CCDs require a backside bias, which can be as high as +80 V. A special erasure procedure is needed to solve image persistence problems.
James Fulton, Launch Vehicle Branch chief in Clearman's office, recruited Donald Simmons to handle LC- 39's electrical cable problems. Simmons's experience on Atlas served him well as the first chief of the Cable Working Group. The group's mission in September 1965 involved preparation of a cable accounting system, the Site Activation Board's third essential management tool. This tracking system kept tally on more than 60,000 cables including all connectors by part number, the length of cable, cable makeup, procurement action and date, the agency furnishing the cable, the need date as assessed from the PERT schedules, from and to locations, and the installation contractor. Communication and instrumentation from the launch control center to pad B alone required nearly 160 kilometers of cable. KSC let a 2 million contract for the job in October 1965 the work included the installation of 142 kilometers of coaxial, video, telephone, and instrumentation cables plus terminal equipment. The...
At least some types of meteorites are believed to be remnants of the earliest stages of evolution of the Solar Nebula. They are thought to have condensed well before the first planets formed. Meteorites generally are classed either as iron or stony. The iron meteorites are metallic and rich in iron. The stony meteorites can take on different forms. Of particular interest to studies of the formation of the Solar System are chondrites, stony meteorites containing chondrules. Chondrules, in turn, are millimeter-sized silicate spherules that look as though they might have been droplets frozen from a melt. They consist largely of olivine, a mineral whose chemical makeup is (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, pyroxine (Mg, Fe)SiO3, and plagioclase feldspar, which is a solid solution of CaAl2Si2O8 and NaAlSi3O8. Table 10.1 shows that all of these minerals condense out at temperatures 1240 K in the pressure range shown. The chondrules are embedded in a matrix, a more finely ground mass, generally of the same...
A second DPM experiment was provided by Robert Apfel of Yale University and examined the influence of 'surfactants' - substances which alter a fluid's properties by aiding or inhibiting the way it adheres to, or mixes with, other substances - on the behaviour of drops. On Earth, surfactants are routinely used soap and water interact in dishwashers, for example, and cosmetics manufacturing, the cleaning-up of oil spills and the dissolution of proteins in synthetic drugs also rely heavily upon them. Apfel's study focused on the oscillation of single drops and the coalescence of several drops with different concentrations of surfactants.
Hints of cosmic reionization, and most of what we know about the intergalactic medium, come from QSO absorption lines. Being able to reach such conclusions requires the presence of QSOs as background sources for the absorbing material. Their high luminosity has long made quasars attractive probes of the distant Universe, not only through absorption of their light by foreground material, but as background sources for gravitational lensing. The role of active galactic nuclei in our picture of galaxy formation and evolution extends well beyond these indirect applications. These objects, especially the luminous quasars, directly pose profound issues about events in the early universe. Their existence at high redshifts indicates that some galaxies (perhaps the most concentrated or most massive) had formed by then, and the chemical makeup of their emitting gas shows that their immediate environments must have undergone rapid and intense star formation.
As the new century begins, scientists have a first, tentative accounting of the universe one-third matter and two-thirds dark energy, adding up to the critical density and a flat universe. This accounting raises a new set of deeper questions whose answers will have profound implications for both cosmology and particle physics and whose answering will involve both astronomers and physicists. Scientists are poised to make progress in addressing two key questions about the makeup of our universe and the very nature of space, time, and matter.
As we gaze out beyond the asteroid belt and contemplate Jupiter, it becomes obvious right away that this is a very different kind of world than any of the other bodies that we've studied thus far. First of all, it is enormous. Of all the rocky bodies of the solar system we've toured thus far, the largest is the one you're standing on, Earth. Jupiter is so immense that it would swallow more than 1,300 Earths within its volume. Jupiter's diameter of 142,984 kilometers is by far the largest body in the solar system other than the Sun. Despite having a volume of 1,300 Earths, Jupiter's mass is only equal to about 318 Earth's suggesting that the planet's density is very low. On average, a cubic centimeter of Jovian matter weighs only 1.33 grams, compared to 5.5 for Earth and Mercury. Jupiter is almost entirely gas. The planet by volume consists of approximately 90 hydrogen and 10 helium. Since helium is much heavier than hydrogen the helium actually makes up about 25 of the planet's total...
Another major study in this area was the Droplet Combustion Apparatus (DCA), which occupied Voss during one of her early shifts on 5 April and housed a variety of experiments to investigate burning drops of different fuels and monitor conditions at the instant of their extinction. A significant amount of the energy produced around the world comes from burning fuels, Vedha Nayagam of Lewis Research Center said, and by studying them in space and comparing their data to theoretical models it was hoped to learn more about their chemical makeup.
More than a decade suggest a cycle of about six years. Because Betelgeuse is a star that may or may not be fusing silicon and sulfur into iron in its core, its end is very near. When that end comes, it will be one of the most spectacular events viewed in our sky in many hundreds of years. Because layers of gas being blown off from its interior surround Betelgeuse, it defies attempts to measure its exact size and internal makeup. It may not erupt as a supernova for another fifty million years. But it might do so tomorrow, therefore any change in the behavior of this star would be of great interest to the astronomical community. Can you measure the changing brightness of Betelgeuse Since good comparison stars are in close proximity in Orion, all you need to do is make regular wide field photographs of Orion and see how that red star at the top left compares to the blue one at the top right and bottom right.
Hollywood has done a pretty fair job of reflecting the range of opinion on the psychological makeup of extraterrestrial beings. The 1950s and 1960s saw a number of movies about malevolent alien invaders, but then Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) and E.T. the Extraterrestrial (1982) suggested that contact
Such is the makeup of spiral galaxies the visible light is concentrated in two components, a bright central bulge and a relatively faint disk composed of more or less prominent spiral arms. A third component, called the stellar halo, is mostly dark. The Milky Way follows the same basic plan.
For reasons of cost and schedule, it was decided to base Giotto on the structure of the GEOS magnetospheric satellite built by British Aerospace, with the addition of a high-gain antenna and a dust shield. It would be spin stabilized at 90 rpm at orbit insertion but slowed to 15 rpm once on its way, and would have no booms or other appendages that would be exposed to the impact of cometary particles. In its final design, Giotto was built around a central aluminum thrust tube on which were mounted three platforms the uppermost one for the high-gain antenna, the middle one with avionics and four tanks of hydrazine for attitude and orbit control, and the lowest for scientific payload and the star mapper which would provide attitude determination. To enable the spacecraft not only to survive but also to operate deep in the coma, it would require to be protected against specks of dust striking at high speed. Remarkably, the solution to this problem had been devised in 1946 by the American...
In addition to a telemetry processor and other auxiliary features, star sensor attitude determination software systems normally consist of five components, as shown in Fig. 21-5. The detailed makeup of these components depends on the type and accuracy of sensor measurements the quality of the attitude estimates provided by other attitude hardware the field-of-view size, orientation, and sensitivity of the sensor the complexity and accuracy of the attitude model and the desired accuracy of the attitude solutions.
Mars' atmosphere also offers the patient and skilled observer some interesting details. The atmosphere is excruciatingly thin with a mean surface pressure of only about 7 millibars (sea level pressure on Earth is 1013.2 millibars, on Venus it is 90,000 millibars). Locally though pressures can vary dramatically. At the peak of Olympus Mons, the pressure is barely 1 millibar while in the deepest basins pressure can build as high as 9 millibars. The makeup of the atmosphere is almost entirely carbon dioxide gas that was not absorbed into the rocks during the planet's formation. Small amounts of nitrogen, argon, water vapor and oxygen are also present. The atmosphere can on occasion present water vapor clouds in thin white wisps in the upper atmosphere. Much more dramatic are when the winds kick up huge dust storms that begin in a plain and within a few days completely envelop
During the past ten years, tremendous progress has been made in the manufacturing process and therefore in the properties of the CCD itself. These improvements have allowed much lower noise properties for CCDs, thereby increasing their overall efficiency in astronomy. In addition, larger format devices have been produced and the readout times are much shorter, approaching 1-2 seconds even for arrays as large as 1024 pixels square. This latter advance is mainly due to the availability of high-speed, low-power and low-noise CCD controllers (see Chapter 2). The driving technology for CCD manufacturing is for items such as copy machines, TV cameras, and digital cameras, but the requirements for low noise, excellent pixel cosmetics, and nearly perfect performance is still firmly rooted in astronomy. We outline below two of the important reasons why CCDs are considered as essentially the perfect imaging device. Details of the manufacturing techniques and properties of CCDs will be presented...
This effect is the basis of an interesting concept that has been proposed for generating power in low Earth orbit. A conductive cable several kilometers long would be deployed from a spacecraft and stabilized vertically in a gravity-gradient configuration (see Chapter 7). Motion in Earth's magnetic field would generate a current that could be used by the spacecraft, at the cost of some drag makeup propellant. A preliminary tether experiment was performed from the cargo bay of the space shuttle however, mechanical problems with the deployment mechanism allowed only limited aspects of the technique to be demonstrated.
It was a universe divided, split into two completely distinct parts, each with its own makeup and code of behavior. There were the heavens everything more remote than and including the moon in which all motion was uniform, never ending, and perfectly circular about the center. Separately, there was Earth and the space immediately around it, in which imperfection and motion of a very different kind were the norm. If the heavens were the playground of astronomy, the sublunar domain was the province of an apparently very different science, physics, and the only place where, according to Aristotle, the twin properties of gravity and levity influenced how objects moved. All earthly motion, said Aristotle, is either natural or violent. Natural motion always happens in a dead-straight line along the radius of the universe (in other words, either directly toward or away from Earth's center) and eventually comes to a halt. This idea follows logically from the Aristotelian belief that...
The second type of spectrum is an emission spectrum. A low-pressure, but high-temperature gas will emit light as the electrons in orbit around the nucleus give off photons of energy. The most important finding was that the emitted light is given off in specific wavelengths. The color or wavelength of the emission will inform the observer of the chemical makeup of the gas. This type of spectrum is seen as narrow bright lines that shine in the specific color given by the chemistry of the emitting gas. Glowing nebulae are obviously an example here, and so are fluorescent lights. If you hold up a prism at the correct angle you can see the emission lines of neon as given off by the light tube.
Scientists have attempted to deduce the makeup of Mercury's surface from studies of the sunlight reflected from different regions. One of the differences noted between Mercury and the Moon, beyond the fact that Mercury is on average somewhat darker than the Moon, is that the
Awkwardness was also a problem faced by NASA's male-dominated engineering community, who decided the female astronauts were bound to require a makeup kit So they came to me, laughed Ride, figuring that I could give them advice. It was about the last thing in the world that I wanted to be spending my time training on, so I didn't spend much time on it at all. There were a couple of other female astronauts who were given the job of determining what should go in the makeup kit and how many tampons should fly as part of a flight kit. I remember the engineers trying to decide how many tampons should fly on a one-week flight and there were probably other issues, just because they had never thought about what kind of personal equipment a female astronaut would take. They knew that a man might want a shaving kit, but they didn't know what a woman would carry.
In the April, 2004 issue of Sky & Telescope author John Wood set out a list of 100 objects on the Moon that characterize the geological history and makeup of the Moon. Wood set out to create for the Moon a list of objects that are organized from easy to see and observe and increasing in difficulty with increasing number on the list. The first object for example is the Moon itself and is designated L1. The second phenomenon is Earthshine (L2). The list then progresses to general surface characteristics such as the dichotomy between the highlands and the maria (L3) and then the Moon's most prominent mountain range, the Apennines (L4).
The test plan is for e2v to do parametric and functional tests and measure standard parameters such as noise, gain, cosmetics, dark current, smearing, and CTE and for IAC (Canary Islands) and ESO to do full acceptance tests plus measure the more exotic parameters such as crosstalk, PRNU, fringing, and PSF.
Earth's peculiarly oxygenated atmosphere was made as pollution by photosynthesizing life. Here, plants used sunlight to turn CO2 and water into oxygen and organic food. Life took over the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and water that dominate the planet's activities. The signs of life are so clearly evident in the makeup of our atmosphere and its differences from that of our CO2-dominated neighboring planets that it is obvious that they do not possess our kind of life. This doesn't mean, in itself, that these planets are lifeless. But, if we ask, Has life played the role on Venus and Mars that it has played on Earth the answer, my friend, is blowing in the carbon dioxide wind an unambiguous no.
Precise analysis of the absorption lines in a star's spectrum gives us information not only about the star's temperature but also about its chemical makeup. Using spectral analysis to gauge surface temperatures with precision, astronomers have developed a system of spectral classification, based on the system that astronomers at the Harvard College Observatory originally worked out. The presence or absence of certain spectral lines is tied to the temperatures at which we would expect those lines to exist. The stellar spectral classes and the rough temperature associated with the class are given in the following table.
The Crab Nebula is one of the most studied objects in the sky. Once scientists realized that this little glowing cloud was the remains of a star that exploded in the year 1054, they really went all out to explain the inner workings and chemical makeup of this nebula. And the Crab did not disappoint them. There are a wide variety of atoms and molecules within the nebula. A fascinating neutron star beams out huge amounts of energy from the center of this growing cloud.
It is part of the Virgo galaxy cluster (see M 49 NGC 4472). The inner core of this galaxy is unusual because it is thought to be counter-rotating from the rest of the galaxy as well as having a different chemical makeup from, and being younger than, the rest of the galaxy, perhaps due to a past accretion event. This inner core has a diameter of several hundred light years and apparent size of about an arcsecond. Professional telescopes find M 59 has a disk that emits about 16 of the light from this galaxy. M 59 also has a circumnuclear disk (diameter of 5-7 ) in professional telescopic studies. The center of this galaxy is believed to contain a supermassive black hole (with a mass of about 3 hundred million Suns). M 59 contains about 2 thousand globular clusters.
It is part of the NGC 5566 galaxy group (see NGC 5566). The nucleus of this galaxy is much younger (being only a few billion years old) and has a different chemical makeup compared to the rest of the galaxy. In addition, the nucleus rotates in a plane perpendicular to the main plane of the galaxy. This decoupled nucleus is thought to be the result of a past accretion of material with its own, separate, chemical makeup and angular velocity.
He tried to refute the heating objections leveled against Le Sage by claiming that the frequency of aether waves were of such a magnitude as to penetrate most matter without interaction. However, he maintained that some bodies would evidence a resonant interaction with aether waves to a greater extent than others by dint of their chemical and atomic makeup. This led him to the belief that certain materials would continue to give off sensible heat for much longer than others even accounting for differences in thermal capacity
Where e is the emissivity of the surface, a fraction between 0 and 1. Blackbodies therefore have an emissivity of 1. The emissivity of a surface depends on its chemical makeup and its detailed structure. For any particular surface, the emissivity generally varies with wavelength and with the direction of emission. For land surfaces, there will often be variations in the surface type, and therefore in the emissivity, within a single picture cell, or pixel of the image.
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