Making and Keeping Friends

Making and Keeping Friends

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Gas Giants And Ice Moons

These encounters became bonding experiences for our community, part scientific conference, part family reunion, part soap opera. Each time our beloved robot craft plunged through yet another new system of worlds there was a gathering of the tribes as scientists and reporters descended on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, where the pictures and other information came down. Friendships formed and solidified. Romances began and ended. Some of those who were instrumental early in the mission were no longer with us at the later encounters.

Theres more to see

In order to walk through the heavens and to know where you are, you must recognize what your eye sees. To know the names of stars and constellations is to form a friendship with our heavenly neighbors. As we walk among the constellations, you will feel the immensity and quiet peace of the night sky. Do not ignore the legends about the constellations in Part 3 of the book. These legends will lend greater feeling to your vision of the world above. Friendship with the stars will deepen as we sense the thoughts and dreams of people who imagined people and animals living among the constellations.

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Harvey is tall, lean, and somewhat formal, while Duvall is shorter, plumper, and rather taciturn. Each has his own brand of humor, ironic in Jack's case, epigrammatic in Tom's. And each has a measure of experimental and analytic ability that makes them a formidable pair of researchers.

The screening process

Joe Allen began his academic days at the Caleb Mills School, where he undertook elementary education from 1942 to 1948. Then followed seventh and eighth grade education at Crawfordsville Junior High, and finally Crawfordsville High School, graduating with high distinction in 1955. Actually, I was second in my class behind my good friend Nancy Wells, whose father was the physics and chemistry teacher of the high school. Mr. Wells was a wonderful teacher, and much of my later success in science I credit to him. I suspect that on our graduation day, Mr. Wells was very proud of both Nancy and me

Observing Project 4B Joining an Astronomy Club

Friendship of one amateur who is an electrician who helped repair my telescope when its internal inverter failed. He got me back up and running with a few passes of his soldering iron. Another helped locate us a reasonable dark sky observing site with clear horizons and dry ground to observe from. Others have lent their time to teach others and us about the areas of astronomy they are most passionate about. Others have allowed us to share in their innovations, their large telescopes and their hot beverage supplies.

John Herschel Glenn Jr 1921

John Glenn, Jr., was the world-famous NASA astronaut and U.S. Marine Corps officer who had the right stuff to be selected by NASA as one of the original seven Mercury astronauts in April 1959 and then become the first American to orbit Earth in his Mercury Project Friendship 7 space capsule in February 1962. Undaunted by age, he also set the record as the oldest person (77 years old) ever to fly in space by serving as a crew member on the space shuttle Discovery (1998). Born in Cambridge, Ohio, on July 18, 1921, John H. Glenn, Jr., attended Muskingum College in Ohio and graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering. He was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1943 and served his country as a marine combat pilot in both World War II and the Korean War. Returning from Korea, Glenn attended Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland. In April 1959, he was selected as one of NASA's seven original Mercury Project astronauts. On...

The War of the Worlds

Following the publication of Principia, Newton drifted away from science and became more involved in public affairs. In 1689 he was elected to represent Cambridge in Parliament, and during his stay in London, he became acquainted with John Locke, the philosopher, and formed a particularly close friendship with Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, a brilliant young Swiss mathematician. In 1693, however, Newton suffered another nervous breakdown, possibly due to overwork, Fatio's move back to mainland Europe, or chronic mercury poisoning the result of nearly three decades of alchemical research. Whatever the cause, shortly after his recovery, Newton sought a new

They Do The Traveling

Make friends, and ponder greater questions of Cosmic reality Would you come down and introduce yourself in Red Square or Central Park What if your intent were to conquer Earth by violent means It has been argued that space aliens of that sort won't come here. They'll have annihilated themselves long before they became capable of interstellar travel.

WebbMcNamara Difficulties

More concrete evidence exists documenting the McNamara-Webb personal difficulties. McNamara's deputy, Gilpatric, recounted that his boss took a dislike to Webb because Webb took so long in getting to the point. And so I think he mishandled Webb. He sort of goaded him into taking extreme positions. The result would be that Webb would go up to the Hill and see his good friends like Bob Kerr chairman, Senate space committee and Clint Anderson chairman, House space committee and didn't do McNamara any good. . . . It was just an unnecessary bit of exacerbation to take him on in such a militant fashion. 131 Webb's biographer, W. Henry Lambright, reporting on the overall situation states

Military service and a stay in Cambridge

During his stay in Cambridge Hubble might have crossed paths with the astronomer James Jeans, a thick-set man with a special talent for playing the organ. Jeans had just published a theory of the nebulae that would play a very big role in Hubble's future research. However, Hubble appears not to have digested Jeans's theory until several years later. He did take advantage of his residence in Cambridge to sit in on the lectures of Sir Arthur Eddington, who had elucidated the motions of stars in Kapteyn's ''star streams,'' and to cultivate the friendship of Cambridge astronomer Hugh F Newall, a solar astronomer and friend of Hale. But it is difficult to understand how Hubble could have willingly delayed his return to the United States and the start of his position at Mount Wilson, when Shapley was rocking the astronomical community with his bold ideas about the size of the Milky Way galaxy and the off-center location of the Sun. Unless, perhaps, Hubble shied from the competition he would...

Project P Comet Hunting

Despite all of the advances in instrumentation and professionally-organized sky surveys, amateurs still discover a few comets each year by keeping their eyes close to the eyepieces of their backyard telescopes. Comet-hunting requires a strong dose of perseverance, and a deep reservoir of patience, but it can yield success in two forms. First, you may indeed discover a new comet. Second, in the course of your search, you are likely to sweep up, and observe, a wide array of interesting, pretty, and unsung deep-sky objects that you would not otherwise have encountered. In doing so, your friendship with the sky is likely to deepen significantly 11 .

Lenoir departs and comes back

After the loss of Challenger, former Shuttle astronaut Dick Truly returned to NASA from the US Navy in February 1986 to become the Associate Administrator for Spaceflight (essentially to head up the Shuttle programme). His primary job was to get the Shuttle flying again. In January 1989, Jim Fletcher retired as NASA Administrator and was succeeded by Truly. A good friend of Bill Lenoir, Truly eventually persuaded the former scientist-astronaut to return to NASA in July 1989, even though it was not financially beneficial to Lenoir. He would take on Truly's former role as Associate Administrator for Spaceflight, responsible for all US government civilian space launch activities. The role later expanded to take in the two offices for Space Shuttle and Space Station. Lenoir returned on the understanding that Truly would fire him, If I screwed up or if it was politically needed to save the agency. I wanted a set of objectives - three seemed like a nice number - which I could work towards....

New Field of Science

Sagan, though an idealist, was always interested in the facts behind the fantasies, and his intelligence earned him the respect and friendship of the American geneticist Hermann Muller, who in 1946 received the Nobel Prize in physiology for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation. Sagan spent the summers of 1952 and 1953 working in Muller's lab, raising and sorting (by gender) fruit flies for Muller's experiments. He spent many hours discussing the possibility of extraterrestrial life with Muller. In W. Poundstone's A Life in the Cosmos, Sagan stated that, If not for meeting Muller, I might possibly have bowed under the weight of conventional opinion that all these subjects (on extraterrestrials) were nonsense.

Glenn John Herschel Jr 1921

Ting a transcontinental speed record in 1957 for the first flight to average supersonic speeds from Los Angeles to New York. In 1959 he was selected to be one of the first seven astronauts in the American space program. Three years later, on February 20, 1962, he made history aboard Friendship 7 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight. He retired from NASA in 1964 and from the Marine Corps in 1965, entering politics and, in 1974, winning a seat in the Senate as a representative of Ohio. To this position he was elected in 1992 for a record consecutive fourth term. Glenn made history again when, at the age of 77, he flew as a payload specialist on the crew of the Space Shuttle mission STS-95. NASA's John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has been named in his honor.41

The Pioneer 1011 And Voyager 12 Message Plaques

A fair amount of information is included on this plaque. Features of the two nude figures incorporate characteristics of many human races. The right hand of the male human is raised in (what is hoped) is a universal gesture of friendship and greeting. Behind the two humans is a schematic of the spacecraft to which the plate is Other comentators remarked that our concepts of altruism and friendship may not be universal. How, for instance, would an extraterrestrial race equipped with darts in their fore-limbs interpret the human male's raised right hand

Dave Tylers A Priori Fibreglass Dome

Dave's observatory stands at the end of a medium-sized garden, about 20 m (60 ft) from the house, in a large village in the Chiltern Hills, west of London. Dave is known as one of the finest planetary, lunar and solar imagers anywhere, and another of the finest, his good friend Damian Peach, lives just in the next village, in the valley below. This location is no rural idyll, however the M40 motorway passes between these two villages, and only 200 m (600 ft) from Dave's observatory, and numerous other roads and railways follow the valley. The close proximity of two such successful imagers has caused much speculation as to special atmospheric conditions that might exist here, but this is unfounded. It is an ordinary English semi-urban environment with much the same conditions as the rest of Britain. What is extraordinary is the dedication of these two astronomers.

Peter Nisenson 19412004

Peter received his BS degree from Bard University in New York, and continued with post-graduate work in Physics and Optics at Boston University. He was then employed as an optical scientist by the Itek Corporation in Lexington, MA, where he worked for 14 years. Both of us first met him there in 1973. At that time he was working on a programmable optical memory device (the PROM) which used a photoconducting crystal as a recording medium. When he first heard about speckle interferometry, he realized that this device could carry out the required Fourier transform on-line and therefore provide directly the image power spectrum. The three of us then met for the first time an observing plan was proposed, supported by Itek, and carried out at Kitt Peak in December 1973. Although this particular project was not successful, it was probably the turning point in Pete's life, at which he decided to become a professional astronomer. In the same period, under...

Fuzzy Occultation By Mars

In those days the scientific circle was limited. John Herschel, the son ofWilliam, often observed the heavens with South, and they jointly drew up catalogues of binary stars. The advent of electrification was mentioned above this was in part due to the pioneering investigations of Michael Faraday, who frequented South's private observatory, as did Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the great engineer of the earlyVictorian age. Babbage was also a good friend, and it was ill-feeling fostered by a court case over the mounting of South's large telescope (which he claimed to be inadequate), that led to the opposing party recommending that the government cease all funding of Babbage's computing machines. Babbage made the political mistake of appearing as a witness on South's side in a trial that divided the scientific establishment. South was a fiery controversialist, never far from an argument with someone, and Babbage had a similarly bellicose temperament.

Cooperating with the Soviets in Space

The second identifiable product from the international cooperation initiatives of the Kennedy era began with America's first orbital flight of a human. On 20 February 1962, John Glenn in his Mercury capsule Friendship 7 made three orbits of the earth and flew in space for four hours and 55 minutes. Besides making him an instant hero, it generated a congratulatory message from Khrushchev that read, If our countries pooled their efforts . . . to master the universe, this would be very beneficial for the advance of science and would be joyfully acclaimed by all peoples who would like to see scientific achievements benefit man and not be used for 'cold war' purposes and the arms race. 171 Kennedy immediately responded, I welcome your statement that our countries should cooperate in the exploration of space. . . . I am instructing the appropriate officers of this Government to prepare new and concrete proposals for immediate projects of common action. 172 Kennedy issued NSAM 129...

More doctors than pilots

For the first time in space flight,'' a bemused commander Young observed before the launch, the doctors outnumber the pilots four to two. It's going to be a very interesting and unusual mission.''30 Also worthy of note is the fact that the flight would mark the beginning of a strong and lasting friendship between veteran pilot Young and scientist Merbold.

Crew Station Subsystem

There were quite a few of us sent from New Orleans to Huntsville to work on the proposal,'' Kimsey told Jones for the ALSJ. One of the other fellows, Waine Borne, and I had been working together from 1961. We had gotten to be good friends. We both had Model A Fords that we had restored. The Model A has beads around the fenders. I was joking with Waine and drew a bead on the fenders of the Rover. The project manager asked me why I put the bead on the fender and I told him it was to stiffen the fender. The bead remained on the fender. Now it's sitting on the Moon. It is the same width as a Model A Ford. No one but the two of us really knew the story.''

Dave Shayler

What was unimaginable in 1970-1973 was that just a decade or so later, I would meet several of these scientist-astronauts many times, and become good friends with not only the men, but in many cases their families as well. Astronauts Allen, Thornton, Henize, Garriott and Gibson in particular have provided insights into the workings of the space programme, life in space, and how to adapt to life after space, becoming ambassadors for space exploration. Their enthusiasm and openness, despite their long years of frustration while waiting to fly and then only flying a few missions, was a story that needed to be told. These were not the famous fighter-jocks of the Right Stuff era of the Mercury programme these were a different breed of space explorers, whose

Colin Burgess

I was attending the Congress with fellow space flight enthusiasts Bert Vis and Simon Vaughan, as accredited historians, and for the next week, we were able to meet and talk with a veritable cornucopia of astronauts and cosmonauts. While many friendships and contacts were forged during that week-long forum, there was also one sobering piece of news relayed to those attending. Scientist-astronaut Dr. Karl Henize, selected in 1967, but who had to wait eighteen years for his first space mission aboard STS 51-F Spacelab 2, had perished while attempting to scale the north face of Mount Everest as part of an organised expedition. The news was truly It would prove to be a marvellous amalgamation of interests while David has an encyclopaedic knowledge of space flight missions and technology, my interest lies more in the people who flew those missions, and their motivations to do so. Research for this book not only brought me in touch with all sixteen surviving scientist-astronauts, but...


Named by the discoverer in honor of Robert von der Osten-Sacken who lived in Heidelberg as a private scientist. He was an entomologist and his research trips led him many times to the U.S.A. From one of these trips he brought back a 3-inch refractor which he gave to Staus as a present. The planet was named in recognition and gratitude for his friendship. (H 38)

New World pioneer

By the late 1920s, the regular launches from Worcester were attracting a lot of attention. Goddard wanted more privacy, and through his friendship with aviator Charles Lindbergh (the first man to fly across the Atlantic), he attracted funding from financier Daniel Guggenheim that allowed him to relocate to Roswell, New Mexico. Here, he continued to improve his rockets until his death in 1945, and also worked on experimental aircraft for the US Navy. His attempts to recapture Army interest were met with indifference, though his work found a more appreciative audience in Europe Germany even attempted to plant spies among his researchers.

Loads of Observin

Unless you live at a high-altitude professional observatory you are going to have to do a lot of observing to catch the planets at their best. However, if your telescope and observatory are user-friendly and you have a good knowledge of the weather that creates stable air, you will have a distinct advantage. The secret to getting good planetary images is to have an excellent telescope, the use of which you have mastered, poised and ready for those nights of good, stable seeing. But you will still need to go out every hopeful night and check the conditions. The world's best planetary imagers are active every week that a planet is visible high in the night sky. My good friend Damian Peach (a living legend in the field of planetary imaging) often observed on every day of the month when he lived in Tenerife. He freely admits that he used to pray for cloud but he just could not ignore a clear sky. Such amateurs do not make planet observing a once-a-month hobby....


They are satisfied by developing acquaintances and friendships and gaining full membership in effective teams. Still, people sometimes need solitude. To satisfy relatedness needs, then, crewmembers must be able to regulate social interaction. Thus human factors experts try to counteract the effects of isolation from family and friends, build good will within the crew, and make allowance for privacy.

Tycho Brahe

The most picturesque figure in the history of astronomy is undoubtedly that of the famous old Danish astronomer whose name stands at the head of this chapter. Tycho Brahe was alike notable for his astronomical genius and for the extraordinary vehemence of a character which was by no means perfect. His romantic career as a philosopher, and his taste for splendour as a Danish noble, his ardent friendships and his furious quarrels, make him an ideal subject for a biographer, while the magnificent astronomical work which he accomplished, has given him imperishable fame. to use during the latter's absence. No little friction was at first caused by all this, but in after years a fast and enduring friendship grew up between Tycho and his tutor, each of whom learned to respect and to love the other.

Four Become Five

Maiden voyage from late January until early April, Bob Crippen's team found themselves rescheduled for mid-June. Despite his late addition, Sally Ride recalled that - aside from the TFNG family ties they shared - Thagard blended in exceptionally well. We didn't spend every waking hour together, she said, but we did spend almost all our time together, either as an entire crew or in groups of two or three. I was spending almost all my time with Crip and Rick in launch and re-entry simulations or with John and Norm in orbit or RMS training. Also, because we had things that required the whole crew, we did a lot of training together. We got to know each other very well. We never had any issues at all and got to be very good friends through the training.

A saga of delays

The first in a series of postponements hits the scheduled launch of Friendship 7. A series of hitches, caused by bad weather but also by a fuel leak, eventually delays the launch for almost a month. An Atlas rocket finally launches Glenn and Friendship 7 into orbit. The flight lasts a little less than five hours and mostly goes smoothly, although re-entry is a more traumatic experience than Glenn had expected. FRIENDSHIP 7 The flight of Friendship 7 At 09 47am local time on 20 February, Glenn's spacecraft finally soared into the clear blue skies above Cape Canaveral. The launch went perfectly, and Friendship 7 was soon in an orbit between 159 and 265km (99 and 165 miles) above the Earth. As Friendship 7 flew back across the Pacific on its final orbit, Glenn adjusted its attitude before firing the retro-rockets to drop out of orbit over California. Re-entry with the rocket pack


Named in honor of Paul Baumann (1901-1976) and his wife Helene (1899-1986). An amateur astronomer since 1959, Baumann founded the astronomical association (1961) and public observatory (1962) in Mainz, was involved in the establishment of several other associations in this area and was well known throughout Germany and in many other countries. Baumann was also a member of the first parliament of Rheinland-Pfalz (1947-1951) and for a long time a member of the Mainz city council. The Baumann family were good friends of the father of the discoverer for several decades. (M 12459)

Group Dynamics

Space crews are teams groups of two or more interacting people who have a stable relationship, share common goals, and see themselves as forming a team. These team members have task-relevant knowledge, carefully defined roles and responsibilities, and complementary skills. They are highly interdependent in that they need one another to survive and get the job done, and they achieve very high levels of coordination in the process. Team members are bound together by common interests, interlocking skills, and, we hope, friendship. Later on, spacefarers may exist who do not qualify as members of teams. Consider the independent scientist, just hopping a ride to a destination to do independent research, or members of a maintenance crew working side by side and all doing the same thing. At large extraterrestrial bases we may find people who do diverse, unrelated types of work.

Crew Composition

Larger crews bring a greater range of abilities, talents, and skills to the enterprise and have greater backup capabilities in the event that someone is incapacitated. Larger crews offer the additional advantage of greater social variety. Having more crewmembers or socializing with different crews means an expanded range of friendship choices and more relief from monotony or boredom.

Without A Telescope

Not unusual at the time, but Kapteyn had further cause to feel overlooked his parents ran a boys' boarding school and treated both their own children and their pupils as one extended household of about 70 members. Kapteyn saw little of his parents or siblings, a fact which he later believed made him particularly appreciative of the warm friendships he developed as an adult.


Hulkower, mathematician, scientist and good friend of the discoverer with a special interest in celestial mechanics. While at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory he developed a method of analyzing accessibility for spacecraft missions to near-Earth asteroids and ranked them by energy requirements for rendezvous. His enthusiasm and expertise have helped in stimulating greater interest in these objects. (M 16045)


This paper is written in honor of a long and lasting friendship between Craig Wheeler and the first author for more than half his current life. It starts with a short letter exchange which seems as valid today as ever because it is the confusion concerning large scale convection which is so central to both supernova as well as stars. It is largely based upon a paper Colgate, Herant, & Benz (1993) in honor of Willy Fowler, but with significant additions by Colgate & Fryer (1994).


An Indian princess and daughter of Powhatan, celebrated sachem and chief of the Chickahominy tribe of Virginia, Pocahontas (c. 1595-1617) developed a warm friendship for the English colonists and rendered them many services, including the rescue of their leader, Captain John Smith, from her father. Her marriage to John Rolfe pioneered the peace between the colonists and the native Americans. (M 17657)

Isaac Newton

In the house where he lodged there were some female inmates, in whose company he appears to have taken much pleasure. One of these, a Miss Storey, sister to Dr. Storey, a physician at Buckminster, near Colsterworth, was two or three years younger than Newton and to great personal attractions she seems to have added more than the usual allotment of female talent. The society of this young lady and her companions was always preferred to that of his own school-fellows, and it was one of his most agreeable occupations to construct for them little tables and cupboards, and other utensils for holding their dolls and their trinkets. He had lived nearly six years in the same house with Miss Storey, and there is reason to believe that their youthful friendship gradually rose to a higher passion but the smallness of her portion, and the inadequacy of his own fortune, appear to have prevented the consummation of their happiness. Miss Storey was afterwards twice married, and under the name of...


Named in memory of the French poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891) on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of his death. At the age of 17 he was already known for his Dormeur du Val and Le Bateau ivre, the latter, together with Voyelles, probably being his most famous work. In 1872 he traveled with Paul Verlaine see planet (6871) to England and Belgium, their friendship ending with two gunshots fired by Verlaine at Rimbaud. In 1873 Rimbaud published Une Saison en Enfer, an autobiographical and psychological work. After Les Illuminations, written at the age of 19 and issued by Verlaine only in 1886, nothing remains of the work of this great poet. As a precursor of symbolism Rimbaud enormously influenced Verlaine and the following generation. (M 18645)

Looking back

Michel is also convinced that his resignation had a lot to do with a scientist-astronaut finally being selected to an Apollo lunar mission. Joe Engle was originally assigned to the seat that Jack Schmitt ended up with. This was pretty ironic because Joe was a pretty good friend of mine and Jack might never have gotten the flight had I not resigned. The National Academy was supposed to be looking after us scientists, but those big shots weren't going to spend much time worrying about day-to-day working conditions at NASA. However they had to pay attention when you slam the door behind you. It got their attention before NASA managed to launch every last Apollo mission without a scientist on board. I'm not sure Jack ever realised this.''

World War I

Early in 1914, the Kapteyns were saddened by the loss of their good friend Gill, who died in London after a short illness. It was, as Henrietta Kapteyn-Hertzsprung remarked, the sad beginning to a disastrous year. When World War I broke out in the summer, Elise and Kapteyn were at Mount Wilson, and were too fearful of crossing the Atlantic to go home as planned. They stayed on the American continent until January 1915, worrying about the situation at home. Meanwhile, Kapteyn, maintaining a neutral Dutch outlook on the politics of the war, incurred the enmity of some of his colleagues by accepting a prestigious scientific award from the German Kaiser.

The Apollo Missions

Nelandingen 1969

The manned missions clearly captured public attention, beginning with the Soviet Vostok series (1961-1963, including Vostok 6, which carried the first woman into space, Valentina V. Tereshkova) and the U.S. Mercury series (1961-1963). The Mercury series included two suborbital flights and the first U.S. manned flight in orbit, Friendship 7, commanded by John H. Glenn Jr., and launched on February 20, 1962. (On October 29, 1998, 77-year-old Senator John Glenn boarded the Space Shuttle Discovery and became the oldest man in space. He returned from the mission on November 7.)


In honor of Gilles Traversa, technical night-assistant at the Observatory of Haute Provence. He has been involved mainly in the Fehrenbach see planet (3433) Program of Radial Velocities and has made observations at Zeekoegat (South Africa), La Silla (Chile) and Haute Provence, where he has observed with the Grand Prisme Objectif (GPO), the PPO (Petit Prisme Objectif ) and the Schmidt telescope. From 1986 to 1993 he has been of irreplaceable help to, and has become a very good friend of, the discoverer during the observations at Haute Provence. (M 23353)


Named in honor of the Russian writer Mikhail Zhvanetskij (1934- ), whose satirical talent has won nation-wide recognition. He won the international festival Gold Ostap in 1993 and the independent prize Triumph in 1995. He is also an honorary citizen of Odessa, president of the World-Wide Club of Odessa Citizens and holder of the order Friendship of peoples . (M 30098)


Named in honor of Ernest Hetherington, a highly respected authority on Orchids (Orchidaceae). He was a good friend and mentor to Kay Francis see planet (2050) , the discoverer's mother, who grew and hybridized many exceptional new orchids. Ernie is an orchid judge, gifted writer on orchidaceae and recipient of many honors, awards and special recognition for his role as a grower, educator and popularizer of orchid culture. (M 30477)

Legend of Cygnus

Cygnus the swan symbolizes the wonder, the goodness and the dedication which exists in true friendship. Both the constellations of Cygnus and Gemini symbolize the significance of friendship. his balance and fell off the chariot into the roaring river Eridanus. Cygnus saw his friend disappear into the river, and immediately, in spite of the danger, dove into the waters to save him. Helius was so overwhelmed by this act of true friendship toward his son that he changed Cygnus into a diving swan flying along the line of the Milky Way as a symbol of the greatness and importance of friendship.


Konke, space advocate and good friend of the discoverer. Born in Wisconsin and educated in Minnesota and Illinois, she has pursued a career in psychology, studying human capabilities and desires. Inspired by a friend and the starry skies of Palomar Mountain, she developed an interest in space travel and exploration, believing that humankind's greatest adventure is in the heavens. Thus began her enthusiastic support for the discoverer's Deep Solar System Survey. (M 25978)


Named in honor of Frederick Harlan Harris, CCD guru. Harris worked at Caltech for the Palomar Observatory for many years before moving to the U.S. Naval Observatory, where he is involved in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Harris is a good friend of Caussols astronomer Alain Maury see planet (3780) , and his patient help has been essential in the development of the CCD cameras for the Schmidt telescope with which this minor planet was discovered. (M 25979) Citation endorsed by M. Carr.

Brief career

The Soviet Union's dramatic disintegration at the end of 1991 left its space programme in chaos. While much of its infrastructure was inside Russia itself, some vital assets were beyond Russian borders in suddenly independent states. Kazakhstan, for instance, was soon demanding payment for use of its launch facilities at Tyuratam. Meanwhile Mir remained in orbit, its politically stranded cosmonauts Alexander Volkov and Sergei Krikalev dubbed the last Soviet citizens . Cash shortages meant the station was still only half-finished, with two large modules still waiting on the ground. Eager to extend the hand of friendship and help stabilize the fragments of their former rival, American politicians saw the possibility of once more turning space exploration to political ends.

Legends of Gemini

During one of their fights with thieves Castor, who was mortal, was killed. Pollux, who was immortal, was grief stricken and begged Zeus to allow him to be with Castor every other day in the underworld. Zeus was so touched by this request and by Pollux's feeling of true friendship that he not only approved of the request, but placed them in the heavens together so that the Earth people would always be reminded of the pre-ciousness of true friendship.


Desiring wider opportunities for study and for the acquisition of fame than could be obtained in the narrow associations of provincial life, young Laplace started for Paris, being provided with letters of introduction to D'Alembert, who then occupied the most prominent position as a mathematician in France, if not in the whole of Europe. D'Alembert's fame was indeed so brilliant that Catherine the Great wrote to ask him to undertake the education of her Son, and promised the splendid income of a hundred thousand francs. He preferred, however, a quiet life of research in Paris, although there was but a modest salary attached to his office. The philosopher accordingly declined the alluring offer to go to Russia, even though Catherine wrote again to say I know that your refusal arises from your desire to cultivate your studies and your friendships in quiet. But this is of no consequence bring all your friends with you, and I promise you that both you and they shall have every...

Rodent Experiments

The hyperdrive units did not create unpleasant side-effects for the mice because their brains had no pain receptors. ''It's actually crucial to us that our animals are quite happy, not suffering in any way,'' said psychologist Bruce McNaughton of the University of Arizona, a memory and ageing expert. ''If they are, they won't perform the tasks we ask them to. So it's extremely important in our line of research that we make extremely good friends with our animals.''


The Internet has opened up a whole new world in terms of collaboration. Longdistance cyberspace friendships can be of real value when it comes to entering near-Earth space. Communicating through the World-Wide Web was never easier, and such communication has never been cheaper. This factor alone means that collaborations, especially international ones, will be possible like never before. Snippets of information can be instantaneously transferred between continents, enabling the space entrepreneur to share knowledge and ideas at light speed. Those who jealously guard their ideas will only be hurting themselves. Lessons can be taken from both the Wright brothers and Goddard, in this respect (Fig. 11.7).

Men On The Moon

While the unmanned probes were doing their work, preparations were underway to send men into space. Major Yuri Gagarin was the first man sent above the Earth's atmosphere in the Russian Vostok capsule on 12 April 1961. Gherman Titov was next but the Americans were not far behind. Colonel John Glenn was launched into space on 20 February 1962 in Friendship 7, one of the Mercury series of manned capsules. I really wish there was space available here to describe the events of the next few years because the tale is a truly thrilling one. Instead, I must be content merely to relate that the Americans eventually overtook the Russians in what unofficially became known as The Space Race .

The Case Of The Face

It's important to remember that conspiracy theories are not always wrong. Things that sound crazy sometimes aren't. A good friend of mine grew up in Argentina. When he was a teenager there during the 1970s, some swore that people were disappearing without a trace. For a while his family, and most everyone they knew, dismissed this as wacky paranoia. Now we know about Argentina's Dirty War when the fascist government disappeared thousands of liberals, intellectuals, and suspected or potential dissidents. This really happened, but some who first tried to call attention to it were dismissed as crazies. From this we should not conclude that every bizarre theory is true, but we should at least briefly consider the possible truth of things that sound crazy if a lot of people believe they are happening.*

For Further Reading

This is the story of British astronaut Michael Foale aboard Mir, as related by his father, Collin. It is an interesting book based on Michael's hundreds of e-mails to his parents and his personal journal of life aboard Mir. The book accurately recounts the Mir electrical fire, collision, and multiple computer failures. In spite of the tense moments, the book also documents the successes and friendships with American and Russian crew members.

Very Human Machine

Their secretary, Roz Hobgood, was virtually an eighth crew member. ''I was greeted with hugs in the morning,'' she told an Amarillo Globe journalist. ''Every day I had candy or flowers.'' She recalled helping Rick Husband clear boxes when he moved into his new office, talking to Mike Anderson about his beloved Porsche, taking her first trip in a hot-air balloon thanks to Dave Brown, tackling Kalpana Chawla's brain-teasing questions, enjoying the childlike enthusiasm of Willie McCool and the warm friendship of Laurel Clark . . . and even mistakenly thinking Ilan Ramon was dyslexic when he wrote, it seemed, 'backwards' in Hebrew


Named in memory of the famous Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829). In 1824 he proved the impossibility of solving a general equation of the fifth degree by radicals. Through his friendship with the editor Crelle, who encouraged him in his work, he wrote his masterpiece Recherches sur les fonctions elliptiques (1827), from which he could prove that Jacobi's see planet (12040) work on elliptic integrals were consequences of his own work. It is interesting to note that neither Gauss see planet (1001) nor Cauchy showed interest in Abel's work. (M 34347)


Named in memory of Heinrich Erwin Walther Schmadel (1902-1944), journalist and editor-in-chief of several German newspapers. He was killed in World War II in Russia near Stalingrad. His story is only an example of the common tragedy between Germans and Russians. There are thousands of people who never saw their fathers. Among these is Walther's son, astronomer Lutz D. Schmadel see planet (2234) . This planet is a sign of understanding, friendship and forgiveness for us all. (M 35491)

The Future

Acknowledgements It is a pleasure to congratulate Roelof de Jong with organizing such a stimulating conference, to thank Jesus Falcon-Barroso, Leonie Snijders and Remco van den Bosch for assistance with the manuscript, and to thank Piet and Corry for a longstanding and warm friendship.

Rice University

Instrumental in the formation of America's first college-level department of space sciences, which Dessler - an early supporter of the scientist-astronaut programme -would chair. According to Michel, ''Alex Dessler was instrumental in getting me to come to Rice and to continue my efforts at joining the astronaut corps.'' For his part, Alex Dessler, now with the University of Arizona in Tucson, was delighted to welcome Michel to Rice, recalling a good friend and colleague from those days

User Groups

A German member put up an astounding image of M83 in Hydra. He had taken the image from Namibia. The black and white information had been acquired the year before and the color the following year. There were glowing accolades regarding the picture from all around the world. One top-level American imager admired it but voiced the view that perhaps the colors were a fraction strong. Now, this member had spent days, maybe weeks, nurturing this image and the comment got to him. Back came a reply refuting the criticism and demonstrating why he would not accept it. There were links to two sites. The first was to a German Christmas tree sparsely decorated with golden balls. The second was to an All-American Christmas tree decorated in grand fashion, with lights, baubles, chocolates, presents, and all manner of bric a brac to such extent that the tree had all but disappeared. These two guys stay good friends.


The intimate friendship between the two greatest astronomers of the time continued without interruption till the death of Newton. It has, indeed, been alleged that some serious cause of estrangement arose between them. There is, however, no satisfactory ground for this statement indeed, it may be regarded as effectually disposed of by the fact that, in the year 1727, Halley took up the defence of his friend, and wrote two learned papers in support of Newton's System of Chronology, which had been seriously attacked by a certain ecclesiastic. It is quite evident to any one who has studied these papers that Halley's friendship for Newton was as ardent as ever.

Deciding on a future

Between the people of the United States and those of other countries. It was only available to students who had achieved a Bachelor's degree or the equivalent. Allen was readily accepted by fellow students at the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel, but only on the challenging proviso that he would speak nothing but German, even though many of his new classmates spoke excellent English. It was the best possible way to learn German, and he consequently became fluent in the language - as they had intended. ''Every journey changes a person. Part of the way a person is changed by a journey is in being away from home and gaining a new perspective and a new appreciation for home.'' During that year he formed many friendships of lifelong tenure, and would later host several German high school students in the United States.

The Earl Of Rosse

Lord Rosse was endowed by nature with a special taste for mechanical pursuits. Not only had he the qualifications of a scientific engineer, but he had the manual dexterity which qualified him personally to carry out many practical arts. Lord Rosse was, in fact, a skilful mechanic, an experienced founder, and an ingenious optician. His acquaintances were largely among those who were interested in mechanical pursuits, and it was his delight to visit the works or engineering establishments where refined processes in the arts were being carried on. It has often been stated--and as I have been told by members of his family, truly stated--that on one occasion, after he had been shown over some large works in the north of England, the proprietor bluntly said that he was greatly in want of a foreman, and would indeed be pleased if his visitor, who had evinced such extraordinary capacity for mechanical operations, would accept the post. Lord Rosse produced his card, and gently explained that...

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