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14. See, for example, D.S. McKay, E.K. Gibson Jr., K.L. Thomas-Keprt, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, and R.N. Zare, "Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001," Science 273:924-930, 1996.

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20. For a summary of NASA's current thinking on the timing of a Mars sample-return mission see, for example: D.J. McCleese and the Mars Advanced Planning Group, Robotic Mars Exploration Strategy 2007-2016, JPL 400-1276 706, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2006; and D.W. Beaty, M.A. Meyer, and the Mars Advanced Planning Group, 2006 Update to "Robotic Mars Exploration Strategy 2007-2016," unpublished white paper posted November 2006 by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group at

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26. For additional details see, for example, National Research Council, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006.

27. For additional details see, for example, National Research Council, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997.

28. See, for example, M.J. Daly, "Deinococcus radiodurans as an Analogue to Extremophile Organisms That May Have Survived on Mars," pp. 67-69 in National Research Council, The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2002.

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40. M. Gadanho and J.P. Sampaio, "Microeukaryotic Diversity in the Extreme Environments of the Iberian Pyrite Belt: A Comparison Between Universal and Fungi-specific Primer Sets, Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Cloning," FEMS Microbiology Ecology 57:139-148, 2006.

41. R.D. Braun and R.M. Manning, "Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges," IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky Montana, March 2006.

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