Recommended Reading

[1] Campbell, F.C., "Secondary Adhesive Bonding of Polymer-Matrix Composites", in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites, ASM International, 2001.

[2] Campbell, F.C., Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Composites, Elsevier Ltd, 2004.

[3] Scardino, W.M., "Adhesive Specifications", in ASM Engineered Materials Handbook Vol. 1 Composites, ASM International, 1987.

[4] Bitzer, T., Honeycomb Technology - Materials, Design, Manufacturing, Applications and Testing, Chapman & Hall, 1997.

References

[1] Campbell, F.C., "Secondary Adhesive Bonding of Polymer-Matrix Composites", in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites, ASM International, 2001.

[2] "Redux Bonding Technology", Hexcel Composites, December 2001.

[3] Campbell, F.C., "Adhesive Bonding and Integrally Cocured Structure", in Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Composites, Elsevier Ltd, 2004, pp. 242-299.

[4] Heslehurst, R.B., Hart-Smith, L.J., "The Science and Art of Structural Adhesive Bonding", SAMPE Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, March/April 2002, pp. 60-71.

[5] Scardino, W.M., "Adhesive Specifications", in ASM Engineered Materials Handbook Vol. 1 Composites, ASM International, 1987, pp. 689-701.

[6] Hart-Smith, L.J., Brown, D., Wong, S., "Surface Preparations for Ensuring that the Glue Will Stick in Bonded Composite Structures", 10th DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, 1-4 November 1993, Hilton Head Island, SC.

[7] Hart-Smith, L.J., Redmond, G., Davis, M.J., "The Curse of the Nylon Peel Ply", 41st SAMPE International Symposium and Exhibition, 25-28 March 1996, Anaheim, CA.

[8] Venables, J.D., McNamara, D.K., Chen, J.M., Sun, T.S., Hopping, J.L., Applied Surface Science, Vol. 3, 1979, p. 88.

[9] Krieger, R.B., "A Chronology of 45 Years of Corrosion in Airframe Structural Bonds", 42nd International SAMPE Symposium, 4-8 May 1997, pp. 1236-1242.

[10] Hinrichs, R.J., "Vacuum and Thermal Cycle Modifications to Improve Adhesive Bonding Quality Consistency", 34th International SAMPE Symposium, 8-11 May 1989, pp. 2520-2529.

[11] Gleich, D.M., Tooren, M.J., Beukers, A., "Structural Adhesive Bonded Joint Review", 45th International SAMPE Symposium, 21-25 May 2000, pp. 818-832.

[12] "HexWeb Honeycomb Sandwich Design Technology", Hexcel Composites, 2000.

[13] Kindinger, J., "Lightweight Structural Cores", in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites, ASM International, 2001.

[14] Corden, J., "Honeycomb Structures", in ASM Engineered Materials Handbook Vol. 1 Composites, ASM International, 1987.

[15] Bitzer, T., Honeycomb Technology - Materials, Design, Manufacturing, Applications and Testing, Chapman & Hall, 1997.

[16] Danver, D., "Advancements in the Manufacture of Honeycomb Cores", 42nd International SAMPE Symposium, 4-8 May 1997, pp. 1531-1542.

[17] Black, S., "Improved Core Materials Lighten Helicopter Airframes", High-Performance Composites, May 2002, pp. 56-60.

[18] "HexWeb Honeycomb Selector Guide", Hexcel Composites, 1999.

[19] Radtke, T.C., Charon, A., Vodicka, R., "Hot/Wet Environmental Degradation of Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Representative of F/A-18: Flatwise Tension Strength", Australian Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Report DSTO-TR-0908.

[20] Whitehead, S., McDonald, M., Bartholomeusz, R.A., "Loading, Degradation and Repair of F-111 Bonded Honeycomb Sandwich Panels - A Preliminary Study", Australian Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Report DST0-TR-1041.

[21] Loken, H.Y., Nollen, D.A., Wardle, M.W., Zahr, G.E., "Water Ingression Resistant Thin Faced Honeycomb Cored Composite Systems with Facesheets Reinforced with Kevlar Aramid Fiber and Kevlar with Carbon Fibers", E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company.

[22] Stankunas, T.P., Mazenko, D.M., Jensen, G.A., "Cocure Investigation of a Honeycomb Reinforced Spacecraft Structure", 21st International SAMPE Technical Conference, 25-28 September 1989, pp. 176-188.

[23] Brayden, T.H., Darrow, D.C., "Effect of Cure Cycle Parameters on 350° F Cocured Epoxy Honeycomb Panels", 34th International SAMPE Symposium, 8-11 May 1989, pp. 861-874.

[24] Zeng, S., Seferis, J.C., Ahn, K.J., Pederson, C.L., "Model Test Panel for Processing and Characterization Studies of Honeycomb Composite Structures", Journal of Advanced Materials, January 1994, pp. 9-21.

[25] Renn, D.J., Tulleau, T., Seferis, J.C., Curran, R.N., Ahn, K.J., "Composite Honeycomb Core Crush in Relation to Internal Pressure Measurement", Journal of Advanced Materials, October 1995, pp. 31-40.

[26] Hsiao, H.M., Lee, S.M., Buyny, R.A., Martin, C.J., "Development of Core Crush Resistant Prepreg for Composite Sandwich Structures", 33rd International SAMPE Technical Conference, 5-8 November 2001.

[27] Harmon, B., Boyd, J., Thai, B., "Advanced Products Designed to Simplify Co-Cure Over Honeycomb Core", 33rd International SAMPE Technical Conference, 5-8 November 2001.

[28] Weiser, E., Baillif, F., Grimsley, B.W., Marchello, J.M., "High Temperature Structural Foam", 43rd International SAMPE Symposium, 31 May-4 June 1998, pp. 730-740.

[29] Herbeck, I.L., Kleinberg, M., Schoppinger, C., "Foam Cores in RTM Structures: Manufacturing Aid or High-Performance Sandwich?", 23rd International Europe Conference of SAMPE, 9-11 April 2002, pp. 515-525.

[30] Carstensen, T., Cournoyer, D., Kunkel, E., Magee, C., "X-Cor™ Advanced Sandwich Core Material", 33rd International SAMPE Technical Conference, 5-8 November 2001.

[31] Moors, G.F., Arseneau, A.A., Ashford, L.W., Holly, M.K., "AV-8B Composite Horizontal Stabilator Development", 5th Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, 27-29 January 1981.

[32] Watson, J.C., Ostrodka, D.L., "AV-8B Forward Fuselage Development", 5th Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, 27-29 January 1981.

Chapter 9

Metal Matrix Composites

Metal matrix composites offer a number of advantages compared to their base metals, such as higher specific strengths and moduli, higher elevated temperature resistance, lower coefficients of thermal expansion, and, in some cases, better wear resistance. On the down side, they are more expensive than their base metals and have lower toughness. Metal matrix composites also have some advantages compared to polymer matrix composites, including higher matrix dependent strength and moduli, higher elevated temperature resistance, no moisture absorption, higher electrical and thermal conductivities, and non-flammability. However, metal matrix composites (MMCs) are normally more expensive than even polymer matrix composites, and the fabrication processes are much more limited, especially for complex structural shapes. Due to their high cost, commercial applications for metal matrix composites are sparse. There are some limited uses for discontinuously reinforced MMCs but almost no current applications for continuously reinforced MMCs.

Metal matrix composites can be subdivided according to the type of reinforcement shown in Fig. 9.1. The reinforcement can be particulates (particles which are approximately equiaxed); high strength single crystal whiskers; short

Particulate

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