Ways To Become A Millionaire Fast

The Millionaire Academy

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The Millionaire Academy Summary


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Jeanrene Roy And Matt Mountain

By looking back at the last half century and beyond, an understanding emerges in the patterns and influences of the social, fiscal and institutional development of astronomical institutions and observatories. In this paper, the authors1 review many changes that have transformed how astronomers build and use their great telescopes they also examine the evolving process that maximizes the productivity and impact of undertaking modern ground-based optical infrared astronomy. The integration of modern engineering and experimental practices, broadened access to large-scale funding and international competition, all have a role in these changes. A changing social paradigm has moved these ventures from the scientific elite into the realm and structure of tightly managed projects involving close partnerships between engineers and scientists. Astronomer's observational methods have changed in fundamental ways as well, driven by the complexity of the instruments used and their...

The Ace Moving Company

It was a triumphant moment for both the crew and NASA as a whole. After more than a decade of planning and development, maddening problems with thermal protection tiles and main engines, boosters and fuel tanks and billions of dollars poured into the programme, it seemed that the Shuttle was finally beginning to prove its commercial worth. It still, as many astronauts pointed out, had nowhere to shuttle to - certainly, no space station was officially on NASA's

Science and National Policy

Since the end of World War II in 1945, many countries have mounted major efforts to achieve nuclear weapons capability or more benignly to develop and deploy nuclear power sources. The U.S. federal government has expended billions of dollars annually for more than 30 years on its space program. The Japanese government has strongly encouraged the development of scientifically based industries as engines of economic progress. Many countries and international consortia of countries have invested very heavily in research at the most fundamental levels in the belief that in the long run the fruits of this research can be given practical application. Because these efforts involve very substantial amounts of money, there are continuing debates about values and priorities. A typical case is that of the SSC, the Superconducting Super Collider, which was intended as a site for very complex experiments probing the ultimate limits of the structure of matter. There was a nationwide competition...

Career as a Math Tutor Begins

Galileo left Rome without work, yet he gained a friend in Clavius. By 1588, they were writing each other regularly and exchanging mathematical notes. By now, Galileo had begun to make a reputation for himself through lectures given on mathematics at the Florence Academy and the strong support given him by Christopher Clavius. When, in 1589, the University of Pisa found it was in need of a mathematics professor, Galileo was chosen for the task. This was a fine step forward for Galileo, but he looked ahead to larger career goals.

One down one to go 111

The satellite finally retired from US government service in February 1998, bringing to an end more than a decade of Leasat operations. However, its usefulness was not yet over. Under a multi-million-dollar contract with the Australian Defence Force, in May of that year it was moved into a new orbital slot at 156 degrees East longitude for use by the Royal Australian Navy. It was a reprieve for the satellite according to Hughes' spokesman Ronald Swanson, '' it was literally within days of being propelled into a useless 'graveyard' orbit, since its service to the Department of Defense had been completed''.

The Spacecraft garage

The million-dollar mirror and seriously threatened the spacecraft's production schedule, because it took nine months to build a new one. In 2004 an almost finished NOAA meteorological satellite fell off the ground support trolley to which it was supposed to be securely bolted. The spacecraft smacked onto the hard floor, resulting in millions of dollars of damage. The bolts were missing someone forgot to put them back after a test, and another person forgot to check if they were really there before moving the trolley with the spacecraft on it.

Funding the Project The Budgetary Process

This intricate process was further complicated for LOD in 1962. First, the directorate was in process of evolving into an independent center - LOD became the Launch Operations Center (LOC) halfway through 1962 and ' halfway through this chapter. Second, it had to fend off a flanking attack from the Air Force to retain jurisdiction over the newly acquired land on Merritt Island see chapters 5-8 and 5-9 . Third, it had to plan and budget new facilities and equipment for a still undefined space vehicle to meet the Kennedy deadline of a moon landing within the decade. And fourth, where it had been dealing in millions of dollars, now it had to request hundreds of millions. While the mobile concept had been accepted, the mode of transport - barge, rail, or crawlerway - had not been determined. In many instances, moreover, LOD had to telescope the work of several years into one, by forecasting the financial implications of a concept from the drawing board to end use. Normally, the...

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If an instrument fails in orbit, it can seldom be resurrected, and thousands of man-years of work are then lost. So absolute reliability, with redundancy, must be built in. The quality controls are slow, exacting, and expensive. A typical price tag reads ten million dollars. Let's have a look at these crown jewels.

When Can We Talk About Probability

When statistics is misapplied, seemingly logical reasoning can be used to support all manner of hogwash. It is done in industry all the time, especially when the intent is to get you to do something that will cause someone else to make money. Therefore, keep your probability-fallacy radar on. We are about to leap into territory where every good scientist needs it

Observing Project 6A Tracking Solar Activity

As often as possible, keep an eye on sunspots. As the Sun's activity level increases, watch for sunspots to increase in terms of both quantity and quality. As activity increases sunspots will also begin to appear in groups. They will also become more persistent. The key things to watch for are sunspots that are forming in pairs, or in pairs of groups in close proximity. These are prime places for solar flares to occur or for large prominences to be thrown into space. If one should occur while it is rotating past Earth in space, enormous amounts of high-energy radiation and gas will be thrown at us in what as known as a coronal mass ejection. These create prime conditions for aurora to form and by keeping an eye on the activity of the Sun you may be among the first to know when an aurora is imminent, along with the various negative aspects of strong solar activity. Astronomers now monitor the activity of the Sun very closely because an energetic Sun is a threat to many billions of...

Vibration Suppression Pads

A shaky scope is not much of a scope. What is the cure A new mount might fix things, but that means spending more money. Some people do not like the idea of removing the tube from an otherwise-nice fork mount to place it on a GEM just to cure the shakes. Do not worry Celestron, Meade, and Orion will sell the shaky-scope owner an accessory to cure the problem (it is a shame they cannot just upsize their tripods a wee bit) little pads that can be placed under the tips of tripod legs to reduce vibration. These vibration suppression pads feature a metal cup isolated from the rest of the pad by vibration-absorbing Sorbothane material. When tripod leg tips are placed in these cups, vibrations are greatly reduced. This is a simple but effective idea and can reduce a telescope's settling time from a bad 10 seconds to a good 2 seconds, which may be just as much of an improvement as would be gained by placing the OTA on a fairly hefty GEM. One thing is sure These pads cost a lot less than a new...

B22 Grain size distribution terminology

19 The difference between the median and mean is illustrated in this example. Suppose 19 paupers and 1 billionaire are in a room. Everyone removes all money from their pockets and puts it on a table. Each pauper puts 5 on the table the billionaire puts 1 billion (that is, 109) there. The total is then 1,000,000,095. If that money is divided equally among the 20 persons, each gets 50,000,004.75. That amount is the mean (or average ) amount of money that the 20 persons brought into the room. But the median amount is 5, since one may divide the group into two groups of 10 persons each, and say that everyone in the first group brought in no more than 5, and each person in the second group brought in no less than 5. In a sense, the median is the amount that the typical person brought in. By contrast, the mean (or average ) is not at all typical, since no one present - pauper or billionaire - brought in an amount approximating 50,000,004.75 (Wikipedia).

Peak of the Hardware Effort

September 1964 saw the delivery of the first Block I guidance system, slated to fly on the unmanned missions and the early manned ones. NASA and the IL team spent that year developing and finalizing Block II with the digital autopilot, in a series of meetings with North American and Grumman. 1965 saw the peak of hardware design activity, with more than six hundred engineers at the IL (though not all worked on hard-ware).62 The Block II requirements were complete by February 1965, and soon thereafter the IL received a 15 million-dollar contract to build the Block II.63 The new design was released in July 1965, a production prototype delivered that November, and the first flight qualification model delivered to NASA in July 1966. In the fall of 1966 Block I production was terminated (Block II production would last until the summer of 1969). Block I would fly the unmanned AS-201 (August 1966) and Apollo 4 and 6 missions, while Block II computers flew on Apollo 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, and all the...

Conclusions On Space Macromanagement

The plans which global space agencies have for space developments during the next 50 years will have to include private enterprise if they are to be realized. Even at the minimum level of maintaining the International Space Station, building new space transportation systems and a lunar outpost, construction and operating costs will be billions of dollars, requiring a new generation of technological and management advances. To accomplish such minimal offworld goals demands (1) more international technological partnerships involving private-sector participation with the public sector (2) a different type of space management and leadership from that exercised during the past 50 years which inaugurated the Space Age (3) a new

F11 Attitudinal change

Potentially, billions of dollars may be earned in twenty-first century space markets. How this may come about, particularly with reference to the utilization of space resources, has been well documented over the last two decades. Certainly, the twentieth century prototype - the communication satellite industry - has proven the possibilities. There are many other challenges facing space enterprise, such as legal, political, financial, and macromanagement of large-scale orbital projects, which we have attempted to address in the past.

McNamara Ordered a Comparative Review

Webb recorded a conversation he had with McNamara in February 1963 concerning Dynasoar in which McNamara stated that he was prepared to look carefully at the values that might be retained from the Dynasoar program, although he had serious doubts that there were any values in it worth the eight or nine hundred million dollars that it was costing. 78 Privately, Webb confided his personal views on Dynasoar as an orbital vehicle it is going to be obsoleted sic by both Gemini and Apollo and that what we need now is careful, thoughtful

Influencing space policy

Frustrated that billions of dollars of government investment has not brought a secure commercial position for Europe in space-based telecommunications either in satellites or the lucrative ground equipment market the EU Commission and the European Parliament propose to assume control of Europe's

Using a Charged Coupled Device CCD

Second, your telescope must be able to track accurately. This means that your telescope must be able to follow a star, and keep it centered on the CCD chip, throughout a long exposure. By long exposure, I mean ten seconds or more. If your telescope cannot do that, it will cost more money to correct that problem.

Mars Science Laboratory

The formal name of this spacecraft became the Mars Science Laboratory. Everything about the MSL would be big the rover, its scientific return and its projected budget of more than 850 million dollars. This was never intended to be a Discovery mission, but instead, the program was conceived to see what could be accomplished in Mars surface exploration when budget and schedule were not so constrained. With up to ten times the scientific instrument payload of the MER rovers, a mission length of at least one Martian year (equivalent to two Earth years) and the capability of operating for years without the need for solar power, the potential landing sites for the MSL will encompass much of the planet's surface. Its primary mission is to study the past and present habitability of the planet Mars. In other words, it will search for evidence of past life and possible evidence of present microbial life, and determine whether future crewed missions to Mars can remain on the planet for extended...

James E Webb 19061992

Great scientific discoveries and important scientific expeditions are usually thought of, planned, and carried out by scientists, but major projects that involve the investment of billions of dollars of public money are often administered and managed by individuals who have little or no background in science and technology itself. The efforts of such individuals are often responsible for the ultimate success (or failure) of research projects. One of the best examples of this truism is James E. Webb, second administrator of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Management Initiatives Military Modes and the Mars Missions

The management initiatives had not only diverted time and effort from the task at hand they also introduced a focus on the customer. The new belief in customer service increased responsiveness to NASA and moderated the lab's reputed arrogance, but a belief that the customer is always right could reduce the lab's independence and lead it to accept unreasonable demands. In 1992, soon after the adoption of Total Quality Management, Stone had defined a new strategic goal that would become a refrain Make a deal and stick to it. 29 JPL stuck to its deal on the Mars missions and paid the price the lab agreed to the initial cost cap and then refused to ask NASA for more money. Appeasement in part stemmed from the presence of Goldin, whose management style encouraged submission. After the earlier Mars Observer failure Goldin had come to JPL and declared If there was something wrong, you should have called it out and said we shouldn't have done it. If we at headquarters or anyone else forces a...

Strictly Nonstation Missions Only

By the time the first assembly mission, STS-88, had finally carried a US-built connecting node called Unity into orbit in December 1998 and bolted it onto the Russian control module, the project was already running billions of dollars over budget and years behind schedule. More trouble was in store the habitat module, again Russian-built, would require another 18 months before it finally reached space, delaying the arrival of the station's first full-time crew until October 2000.

Have Space Stations Met Expectations

Although space stations have been functioning since the 1970s, during which time thousands of experiments have been performed, many observers question the value of this research. This skepticism is voiced by citizen groups questioning whether the research done has civilian application, by legislators questioning whether the billions of dollars spent might not be better spent elsewhere, and by scientists who believe the huge expenditures for a relatively small number of big projects might be better spent on a larger number of small projects. tens of billions of dollars for space stations. In 1995, when NASA revealed its budget for the ISS to be 8 billion, U.S. representative Tim Roemer revealed that, according to independent government estimates, the true cost would be 72 billion. Roemer, along with many of his colleagues and constituents, believed that the money might be better spent

NASA and Its Vietnam Support Effort

By the middle of 1967, Seamans considered two of NASA's projects in this field as major an effort to improve the use of white phosphorous as a target marker and an attempt to develop an acoustic-mortar locator. Seamans estimated NASA's FY 68 expenses for its Southeast Asian support effort at 3.7 million. This figure included not only the two major projects but also exploration into many other possibilities such as tunnel destruction, ambush detection, and a napalm can-non.185 In December 1967, however, NASA's support for the DOD's war effort in Vietnam leaked to the press. The Washington Post reported NASA's Office of Advanced Research and Technology was spending between four and five million dollars per year directing 100 scientists and engineers on tasks vital to the Vietnam war. The Post quoted an unnamed NASA official I don't think anybody is so naive that he might feel an agency spending 4 billion a year on technology shouldn't spend some of it trying to win a war we're fighting....

Forecast For Those Born In December

During the New and Full Moons of March and September 2007 (see Moon Power publication for dates), serious positive or difficult happenings based upon your personal karma will take place. Again, you are strongly advised to use your will and avoid depressing thoughts. Regenerative spiritual endeavors, combined with studies, exercise and social interaction, could prove to be beneficial at those moments. Do not let the nasty pull of the Dragon's Tail affecting your career get the best of your body and mind. The positive Dragon's Head in Pisces has much to offer and will induce a variety of opportunities to improve your working life, right from your base of operation. Building and promoting a group or some kind of club from home can only prove beneficial in the long run. Within the next few months or so, the fruits of many years of hard work will begin to pay off as you may be forced to service the world on a much higher level.

Were the MOL and the AAP Duplicative

The greatest potential for cost savings in this program . . . would come from NASA participation in the MOL program. Both agencies have talked about the possibility of accommodating NASA experiments on a noninterference basis on the MOL, but to date little has been done to achieve this goal. Instead, NASA is proceeding with its plans for a similar near-earth manned space project which also will explore the effects on man of long duration space flights. . . . Despite the fact that Apollo Applications is not considered an approved program, there is the danger that both agencies soon will reach a point of no return where separate and largely duplicating programs cannot be avoided. Inasmuch as both programs are still research and development projects without definitive operational missions, there is reason to expect that with earnest efforts both agencies could get together on a joint program incorporating both unique and similar experiments of each agency. . . . Such a step would without...

The AAPs Progress through 1969

Will have spent many billions of dollars and have relatively little to show for it. . . . AAP as now configured just doesn't seem to justify such high costs for an extended period. 170 NASA did its best to succinctly define the AAP's goals, but its attempts paled when compared to the goal Kennedy tasked Apollo with in May 1961 Before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely. For instance, The basic purposes of the Apollo Applications Program are to continue without hiatus an active and productive post-Apollo program of manned space flight, to exploit the capabilities of the Saturn Apollo system for useful purposes and to effect a progressive development of these capabilities as a stepping stone to whatever programs lie in the future. 171

Antimatter The Ultimate Fuel

Medusa Nuclear Propulsion

As discussed by Schmidt et al. (1999), the current world production rate for antimatter is 1-10 nanograms per year. Billions of dollars of investment would be required to obtain milligrams per year and reduce antimatter cost to trillions of US per gramme. Because of its extreme volatility, this hazardous substance might be 'mass' produced in orbital or lunar antimatter factories.

The Crawler Makes Its Debut

Bucyrus-Erie began such a study one month later. An LOD phone call on 23 March requested preliminary information for Petrone's congressional briefing that afternoon. Thomas Learmont, Bucyrus-Erie's chief design engineer, provided tentative estimates the crawler, jacks, hydraulic system, and steering mechanisms would cost 3,650,000, the umbilical tower 1,500,000, the box structure (launch platform) 800,000. The crawler figure reflected the cost of Bucyrus-Erie's new model with few changes. Later Bucyrus-Erie incorporated a redundant power system and a more sensitive leveling mechanism, raising estimates an additional million dollars. Although the crawler's reliability and flexibility were attractive the cost was a major disadvantage. LC-39 plans called for five launcher-transporters, putting the price of the crawler units at nearly 25 million. In early April, Buchanan suggested separating the launcher from its transporter and building only two crawlers. The proposal would increase...

Book Nobody Understands

Newton was living an even more isolated existence than before. Some years earlier his mother, Hannah, had caught what was described as a malignant fever, a catchall term for any number of fatal illnesses. Newton hurried to Woolsthorpe and took charge of Hannah's care, dressing her blisters and sitting up all night at her bedside. Unfortunately, she was beyond saving and died some days later. As her first child, Isaac inherited most of her property, making him an independently wealthy man.

Biosphere 2 private enterprise

One of the most interesting, comprehensive, and longest experiments in isolated, confined environments was conducted under private auspices in Oracle, Arizona (see Exhibit 77). Located in the American southwest near the foothills of Catalina Mountains on SunSpace Ranch, just 50 km north of Tucson, the enterprise was funded by Texas billionaire Ed Bass, a co-designer of Disney's Epcot Center. Under the name Space Biosphere Ventures, scientists, architects, ecotechnicians, and entrepreneurs put together a 150 million project. The founders considered the Earth the first biosphere, and called their undertaking Biosphere 2 27 . On a 12,000 m2 area of land, they built a glass-enclosed ecological system, with laboratories or biomes for rainforest, savannah, marine, marsh, desert, agriculture, and human habitat. In Spring 1991, this miniature world was tested for its ability to recycle and maintain environments (air, water, and nutrients ) supporting 4,000 inhabitant species of plants

Wow False Alarms And Real Hope

In the seventies, NASA started supporting small observing programs to the tune of a few million dollars per year (a couple of pennies from each American). Whereas Ozma had listened in on two stars, the new plan called for the world's largest radio dishes to sample radio waves from a thousand promising suns. Fortunately, a couple of billionaires, as well as many ordinary folks, came to the rescue, and American SETI was privatized and run out of the nonprofit SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. SETI benefited from the 1990s information technology bubble in Silicon Valley, when rich, altruistic visionaries were swarming the South Bay. Much of the funding to privatize SETI was provided by Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Gordon Moore (cofounder of Intel), and Paul Allen (cofounder of Microsoft). Each kicked in a million bucks of his pocket change.

The IRAM 30m Millimeter Radio Telescope MRT

Radio Telescope Paul Allen

In chapter one we mentioned that the development of large reflector antennas has been spurned strongly by the needs of radio astronomers. Interestingly, this is not entirely the case for the spectral range, called millimeter-wave radio astronomy, which we define as the frequency range from 30 - 300 GHz (wavelength 10 to 1 mm). The first reflectors, sufficiently accurate to operate at 3 mm wavelength, were the 4.9 m diameter antenna at the University of Texas (Tolbert et al.,1965) and the 4.6 m diameter dish of the Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California (Jacobs and King, 1965). Both instruments were not built primarily for radio astronomy, but were however quickly taken over by radio astronomers. Eugene Epstein became corporate astronomer at the Aerospace Corporation and made a career out of making millimeter wavelength observations near the beach of the Pacific Ocean. The Texas antenna was moved to the McDonald Observatory in 1967, where it operated until 2000. It has now...

Grand Fenwick Overtakes the US and USSR

The Mouse That Roared had centered around the attempt of the Duchy of Grand Fenwick, a mythical principality near the Swiss-French border, to wage an unsuccessful war against the United States in the hope that the United States would pour millions of dollars into the nation for rehabilitation. Surprisingly, the war turned out to be a huge success for the Grand Fenwick Expeditionary Force. It captured a professor at Columbia University, a native of Grand Fenwick, who had invented the bomb to end all bombs. By threatening to use the bomb on all the major nations of the world, Grand Fenwick brought universal peace. In the sequel, Mouse on the Moon, Grand Fenwick, faced again with a disaster in its main industry, wine-making, requested a half-million-dollar loan from the United States. Instead the United States granted a million dollars to further Grand Fenwick's space program and show America's sincere desire for international cooperation in space. Not to be outdone, Russia gave one of...

Life on the High Frontier

Space settlers would have jobs and the opportunity to make money, perhaps more than they could make on Earth. One stream of income, foreseen by both O'Neill and Savage, would result from information processing, consulting, software development, and other highly compensated activities that require very little office space and that can be done by telecommuting. Unfortunately, because it is a lot more expensive to maintain a computer programmer in space than on Earth, this kind of employment would be at best a stopgap measure. With the possible exception of politicians and officious government bureaucrats, a minimalist democracy offers something for everyone. The poor and dispossessed of the world become enfranchised and gain some control over their lives. Middle-class people can live without having to support the indigent and without mistreatment at the hands of large governmental bureaucracies. Wealthy people can see increased freedom to pursue entrepreneurial goals, unfettered by...

JPL and the Aerospace Industry

Firms as TRW and Hughes developed extensive satellite expertise, most of it through spacecraft for military reconnaissance and commercial commu-nications.40 For groups like the Hughes Space Division, which might have sales of several hundred million dollars a year, a NASA contract for 50 or 100 million spread out over several years provided a very small fraction of business. That did not keep them from competing for NASA contracts, or from complaining that NASA kept work in-house instead of contracting it to industry. And a decline in military space spending in the early 1970s, alongside NASA's cutbacks, left these companies scraping for business.41

The Commercialization of JPL

Several others factors also helped to commercialize JPL. The post-cold war environment that encouraged the celebration of the private sector also sparked an entrepreneurial spirit, which impelled efforts to apply JPL technologies to civilian products. The usual route ran through patents, which Caltech would license to industry for a fee or royalties. The number of licenses rose more or less steadily starting in the early 1990s, especially for software, which increased from about 10 in 1992 to 180 by 1996.67 A few years earlier the lab had also started programs for technology affiliates and other cooperative agreements with industry, under which JPL helped firms, usually small companies, develop new technologies. The lab had thirty corporations as technology affiliates by 1992, sixty by 1994, most of them not from the aerospace industry but seeking help in such fields as software, robotics, microdevices, or remote sensing.68 Licensing activity greatly increased after the institute...

Anatomy of a Spaceplane

The advanced spaceplane will be able to fly into Earth orbit on one tank of gas, refuel in orbit, and take its passengers to the Moon. In time, it will have the ability to land at a Lunar resort, collect lunar-derived propellants, and return to low Earth orbit with both propellants and passengers. Using its winged configuration, it will aerobrake in Earth's atmosphere before rendezvousing with an Earth orbital propel-lant depot. Serving double-duty as a spaceliner and space tanker, the advanced spaceliner will fill a vital niche in the space infrastructure of the future. Spacelines will make money hauling not only passengers but propellants as well. The constant flow of propellants from the Moon, and passengers from Earth, will fuel the space economy, dwarfing anything we see today.

Testing Nobel Prize Science

Did the presence of what were essentially two secondary payloads require an entire mission, they asked, with all the risks involved, not to mention the enormous pricetag, which ran into several hundred million dollars NASA's reply was that its commitment to ASI to launch LAGEOS-2 had been signed before Challenger, and the agency intended to honour it. Questions over the worthiness of USMP-1 to fly on Columbia as a primary payload were best answered by Al Diaz, NASA's deputy associate administrator for space science, who rhetorically asked journalists, ''How do you determine how much Nobel Prize science is worth ''

Deep Sky Observatory

Dome Forms Building

I designed and built the 4.8 m (16 ft) dome myself, after regular work hours and on weekends. I was up against a rather gruelling time schedule of thirty days from start to finish. This was due to a number of factors. First, the unexpectedly fast sale of our previous home (which we needed to sell in order to free up money for the new one) had forced us into rental accommodation on only three weeks' notice. Second, the new construction progressed quickly, and any delay in the dome would cost our building contractor lost time (and us more money). So the dome had to be completed, delivered and ready for lifting by crane on the same day that the roof trusses were put into place. Finally, just to add to the excitement, we were ticketed to leave for the solar eclipse in Baja, California only a day or two after the scheduled lift. There was no margin for relaxation

Ceremonies at Completion

Launch Tower

Negotiations, however, did not prove so simple. A Bucyrus-Erie employee, Barrett Schlenk, had first interested LOC in using the crawler to carry the spaceship from the VAB to the pad. But when it appeared that Bucyrus-Erie would get the contract under sole-source procurement, William C. Dwyer, Vice President of Marion Power Shovel Co. of Ohio, protested to NASA. Brainerd Holmes urged Debus to use competitive bidding. Twenty two industrial firms sent representatives to a procurement conference, but only two submitted proposals - Marion for 8 million dollars, Bucyrus-Erie for 11 million dollars.3 Now Senator William Proxmire (D., Wis.) protested. Webb met with him and other members of Congress to discuss the matter. Previously, Proxmire had tried in vain to amend the NASA Authorization Bill for fiscal 1963 to require competitive bidding to the maximum possible extent see chapter 8-4 but now he advanced the cause of a Wisconsin firm, even though it had lost out in competitive bidding. He...

Transport Processes Diffusion and Advection

In many stellar models, advection is treated as a diffusion process, this is incorrect and leads to erroneous conclusions. The circulation of money in the world offers an interesting example of advective motions. If it would be a diffusion, the money would smoothly flow from the rich people to the poor ones. This does not seem to be the case, the flows of money is generally going the opposite way This is typically an advection, i.e., a global transport of something. Treated as a diffusion, the transport of money would even have the wrong sign. Diffusion and advection do not obey to the same equations.

Characteristics For Those Born In December

You must adapt to the saying, to be a millionaire, you must act and think like one. Your sign rules the wilderness, the desert, and the Indians. This also represents some of your past lives with the Incas, the Sumerians and Atlantis, where you had a position of spiritual power. A word of caution Souls born with an overbearing Jupiter energy must guard against the codification of thoughts (books) and biblical materials your lesson is to realize that God cannot be confined to any man-made buildings, deities or archaic doctrines. The advanced ones (truth seekers) will lead the rest of us towards the reality of God's manifestation through the stars. Remember to respect the Universal Law (see Moon Power), as your awareness of Moon planning will become a major contribution to your happiness and success. The location of your natal Dragon's Head or Tail will seriously alter the strength or weakness of Jupiter in your chart. You can learn much more about yourself or anyone else by ordering my...

Resonance a part of life

One of the most spectacular mistakes in the history of civil engineering was the design of the Tacoma Narrows bridge, built at a cost of seven million dollars. It was the third-longest suspension bridge in the world when it opened and the supporting towers were separated by more than half a mile.

The Lunar Roving Vehicle Request For Proposals

Early Wheel Design

MSFC evaluated the LRV contractor proposals during September and October. By the end of September, they had eliminated Chrysler and Grumman, leaving Boeing and Bendix. It should be stated here that Bendix had committed itself in 1960 to long-range research and development of lunar exploration vehicles. It had invested over twelve million dollars of its own money in this pursuit. The corporation realized that in order to obtain a return on this investment, it would have to win the LRV contract. During October, MSFC worked on preliminary contract negotiations with Boeing and Bendix. Saverio Morea published the results in an internal document dated 23 October 1969. Boeing's negotiated baseline was 17,280,000 with a target vehicle weight of 181.6 kg (399.5 lb). Boeing was counting What stands out in my mind, Morea stated to this author, was the type of government contract we had with Boeing. We recognized they were the low bidder. How did we protect the government's interest The contract...

Faster Better And Cheaper

Moreover, planetary exploration requires very complex, often unique equipment specially developed for a certain mission. In contrast, most commercial Earth orbiting satellites are based on existing and standard space equipment. A telecommunications satellite can be put in operation within a few years after order, while the development of planetary robot explorers usually takes much longer, requires much more money and involves a lot more technical and financial risk. A smart move with a launch price of only 8 million dollar they are rather cheap, Russia gets rid of its missiles without having to pay for scrapping them, and its military launch teams can continue to practice launching rockets.

Columbia Returns Home To

Despite being Columbia's 13th trip into space, and having been in orbit over Hallowe'en, STS-52 had proved a spectacular success. In fact, the mission lasted almost exactly the same length of time predicted in the pre-flight press kit. It was the second landing in Florida for NASA's flagship Shuttle for more than a year, KSC had officially been on 'equal footing' with Edwards as the primary end-of-mission landing site. In June 1991, NASA had announced its intention to routinely use KSC among other reasons it saved the agency the million-dollar cost of ferrying Shuttles back from California.

Galileos First Ideas About Telescopes

Galileo is correctly credited with the first use of the telescope for viewing objects in the heavens, but letters between him and friends suggest that he first had other, more pragmatic applications for the telescope. He believed that he could make money selling his telescopes to wealthy Italian princes so that they could use them for military purposes. In Zdenek Kopal's book Telescopes in Space, the author provides two such letters, the first dating from 1609 and the second from 1610.

The Mobile Launch Concept

* Concept vied with interface for first place In Cape Canaveral jargon, Meaning of concept ranged from the first batting around of an idea to its fruition in a multi-million-dollar building or procedure. While the authors have tried to limit their use of the term, they confess to ill success especially in the early days when LOD planners were dealing with many contingencies and termed each tentative plan a concept.

Fuzzy Occultation By Mars

Using the primitive equipment of the era, little was yet known about Mars. It presents merely a ruddy disk through a telescope, with a hint of pale colorless patches at top and bottom, the polar ice caps. The imagined canals of American millionaire Percival Lowell were still many decades in the future, along with ideas of Martians and H.G. Wells's War of the Worlds. From his private obser

Communications By Means Of Low Earth Orbiting Satellites

Leos Procedure

Many organizations have proposed satellite-based personal communications providing global coverage for voice and data to hand-held subscriber units with a direct link to a satellite. Such systems will offer the ultimate promise of personal communications of allowing communications to the person at any time and in any place, literally, rather than to a physical location. The projected system capital costs are estimated variously as being between 1-4 thousand million dollars. While satellite communications for trunked transoceanic telephone traffic has seen successful operation for more than a quarter of a century, the application of satellites to mobile communications applications and for direct broadcasting is a relatively recent development. To some extent, the change in focus was due as much to the push of competition from wideband digital, transoceanic optical fiber cable as to the pull of satellites being able to service a new market of mobile communications and, it is hoped,...

The Spacefaring Public

Xerus Spaceplane

What kind of vehicle will space tourists of the future want to ride on They will have their choice, in the coming years, of ballistic missile or spaceplane. Those with a higher degree of derring-do will doubtless choose the rocket, especially if they are as financially free as they are fearless. Those with less financial fortitude will choose the spaceplane, which will still be in an immature, suborbital stage of its development. These events will have important consequences for the future, because the spaceplane will garner far more customers than will the missiles, even if they do not go as far, as high, or as fast. Most important, however, is the inevitable result that those companies who operate spaceplanes will gain far more experience in spaceflight than those who concentrate on rockets alone. Both missiles and spaceplanes use rocket engines, and rocket engine experience is every bit as important as spaceflight experience. Furthermore, the most valuable flight experience in a...

Washington Redraws Management Lines

Mueller, Holmes's replacement as Director of the Office of Manned Space Flight, made the all-up decision.** Mueller came to his new position from a vice-presidency at Space Technology Laboratories. STL provided engineering and technical assistance to the Air Force on its missile programs, including Minuteman, where the all-up concept was first employed. Despite some mishaps -the first attempt to launch a Minuteman from an underground silo at the Cape (30 August 1961) had resulted in a spectacular explosion - Mueller was confident that all-up testing would save NASA many months and millions of dollars on Apollo.44 At the OMSF Management Council Meeting on 29 October 1963, Mueller stressed the need to minimize 'dead-end' testing tests involving components or systems that would not fly operationally without major modification and maximize 'allup' systems flight tests. Two other aspects of Mueller's all-up concept directly affected the Cape. The OMSF Director wanted complete...

Entrepreneurial view on space access [17

Currently, there is a difference of opinion on how to lower the cost of space access, and who should pay for it. The debate was evident among space advocates attending the National Space Society's International Space Development Conference in 2006. NewSpace entrepreneurs like Peter Diamandis and Burt Rutan are prepared to go it alone with just private investments, whether from billionaires, venture capital, or private equity funds. In fact, Rutan, designer and builder of SpaceShipOne, contends that taxpayer-funded space research makes no sense He wants to get the aerospace industry off the government dole''. Yet, even advocates admit that smaller operations like his Scaled Composites, or Elon Musk's SpaceX, cannot alone fulfill the nation's Vision of Space Exploration goals. Space agencies have advantages of scale and funding that presently give them the leadership role in returning to the Moon permanently.

The Planet Most Like Earth

Such speculations were on the mind of the American millionaire socialite-cum-astronomer Percival Lowell when he began to think he was seeing long thin lines connecting the green areas. The Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli had seen such lines (most of them later proved to be a kind of optical illusion) and called them canali a word that should have been

Troubled Road To Space

Only one rocket can be launched on any one day, thus enabling the range to concentrate its full resources on that mission. The agreement of General Dynamics, who built the Atlas, to offer their 'slot' on 21 March to Columbia provided a much-needed boost, particularly to the Germans, who were reportedly paying a million dollars every day just to keep their Spacelab-D2 experiments and ground personnel flight-ready. The mission, with its 560-million pricetag, had already been criticised and the enormous cost of reunification since the Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989 had imposed restrictions on Germany's space ambitions.

Updating LC39 Requirements

Changing requirements and priorities for LC-39 made further adjustments necessary in the distribution of money for particular items. Since LOC could carry forward construction of facilities funds to subsequent fiscal years, it continued to update its FY 1963 CoF program, often reprogramming some construction for later fiscal years. Actually, the FY 1963 CoF account was to remain active through calendar 1968. Both the redistribution and reprogramming actions required congressional notification, a much simpler procedure than the lengthy budgetary process. LOC's financial planners worked simultaneously on several fiscal year CoF programs. Between September 1962 and January 1963, LOC transmitted to NASA Headquarters the aborted FY 1963 supplemental, the FY l964 CoF budget, and preliminary estimates for FY 1965. It was in 1962, in fact, that LOC did most of its budgetary homework to obtain the appropriations needed for the later construction of lunar launch facilities. The shift in...

The MOL from Presidential Approval to Presidential Termination

The submissions received from executive branch agencies did not please the new president. He wrote his BOB director Robert P. Mayo, I expected that review to result in a sizable reduction in the total Federal spending budgeted by the outgoing administration for the fiscal year 1970. However, The report you have given me based on the responses of the department and agency heads is very disappointing. . . . Several billions of dollars more emphasis in original must be saved. The inflationary environment in which we find ourselves, our continuing commitment in Southeast Asia and other factors all demand decisive and substantial action to reduce the size of the budget and to keep Federal spending under strict control. He ordered Mayo to develop and recommend a revised 1970 budget which will be significantly below emphasis in original the 195.3 billion forecast in the Johnson budget. In some cases our Administration will have to propose and fight strongly for legislation and appropriation...

Light Pollution

A composite photograph of Earth's surface at night taken from space shows the alarming spread of surface lighting at night. The east coast of the United States is clearly recognizable in any wide-angle picture of the planet at night. The problem is that most of this light goes to waste. Instead of shining down on the ground to illuminate our streets at night, they instead scatter huge amounts of light into the night sky. This is what astronomers call light pollution. Light pollution is no good for anybody. It wastes uncountable billions of dollars per year in electricity, scatters unwanted light in the eyes of drivers and ruins the natural beauty of the night sky. In urban inner cities, so much light from unshielded high-pressure sodium streetlights is scattered into the sky that only the brightest stars and planets can be seen. I remember one particularly horrid night in New York where despite a clear sky and unrestricted visibility, I found the limiting visual magnitude to be just...

Birth Pains

Billions of dollars had been invested in the Shuttle, which was to be the most advanced spacecraft yet to depart Earth. The achievement had not, however, come without problems. Since the original contracts to build the Shuttle had been signed almost a decade earlier, its designers had faced setback after setback frustrating problems with the development of a patchwork of heat-resistant tiles to shield it during its searing, high-speed re-entry and maddening failures of its throttleable, liquid-fuelled main engines. There was political fallout, too, with the Shuttle's powerful Congressional opponents questioning the need for a multi-billion-dollar reusable manned spaceplane.

Authors preface

A truism is that ''engineering is the art of doing with one dollar that which any damn fool can do with two''. Many of the failures described herein are the result of the intense schedule pressure, allowing little time for testing. In other cases, financial pressures have forced design compromises that are less robust than those that the designers might have preferred. This is not to say that applying more money to a project necessarily enhances reliability, but it must be recognised that in general there is an increase in risk associated with cost-cutting. This was explicitly recognised by NASA administrator Dan Goldin in the early 1990s, with the introduction of the 'faster-better-cheaper' strategy. He went so far as to say that if failures did not occur, then NASA was not trying hard enough. Some programmes were introduced with


For those with a little more money to spend after the big purchase, consider adding more Plossl eyepieces to your collection. This design has replaced the Orthoscopic as the most popular among discriminating observers. The Plossl also utilizes four optical elements. The first and second elements are mated and are concave and convex. This stack sends light to a second stack that is convex and concave bringing the image to focus. The design has the advantage of providing an image that is uniformly sharp from center to edge. Each one can cost somewhere between 60 and 100 depending upon size and manufacturer. Plossl designs feature excellent eye relief since the exit end of the eyepiece is considerable wider than less costly designs. The field of view is about 50 degrees on a typical model. Unlike with the Kellner design, the Plossl provides excellent views at both high and low powers. Since the Plossl design is usually the featured eyepiece in most manufacturers product lines,you may...

Why Explore Mars

As space exploration continues, additional pieces of the Mars puzzle will fall into place. Yet some people question whether it is worthwhile to study Mars at all. Space missions are extremely expensive, costing billions of dollars every year, but scientists are convinced that Mars exploration is crucial and must continue. That is because Mars is quite similar to Earth, and about 4 billion years ago, when the two planets were formed, they may have been almost identical. Geologists believe there was a time when Mars had a warmer and wetter climate, vast quantities of surface water, and an atmosphere that was much like Earth's. Over the course of its history, however, Mars has undergone such drastic changes that it looks as though it is caught in the grip of a global ice age. Today, the planet's surface is dry and lifeless, its atmosphere is unfit for human life, and its average daily temperature is more bone-chilling than even the coldest place on Earth. What caused these drastic...


Similarly, the United States has spent billions of dollars on space exploration, but scientists have looked at only 10 percent of the data brought back and have closely analyzed less than 1 percent. The rest sits in the Washington National Records Center, called by frustrated scientists the Black Hole.

An uncertain future

By 1970, however, NASA was struggling. President Richard Nixon's administration was pouring billions of dollars into the yawning maw of the Vietnam conflict, and ''soft'' programmes such as Apollo were rapidly plummeting down the preferred funding list. It was a quandary for NASA Administrator Tom Paine, who that month told a press conference about the need to align space operations with the Financial Year (FY) 1971 budget.

Life in the Universe

Lick Observatory Major optical observatory, and the first in the United States to be built on a mountain-top site. Its telescopes are on Mount Hamilton, about 32 km (20 mi) east of San Jose, California, at an altitude of 1280 m (4200 ft). Its first director was Edward S. holden. The observatory was the result of a bequest to the University of California by an eccentric millionaire, James Lick (1796-1876), whose body lies beneath the pier of the 0.9-m (36-in.) Lick Refractor. Inaugurated in 1888, the telescope was for nine years the largest in the world, and it remains the world's second-largest refractor. With it, Edward E. barnard discovered Amalthea in 1892, the first Jovian satellite to be found since 1610. The front element of its objective lens was refigured in 1987, having suffered long-term damage from atmospheric corrosion.

Shuttling into Space

Completing a manned lunar landing and safe return to Earth on the first attempt was a huge achievement for NASA. But accomplishing the goal set by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 so successfully also contributed to the demise of the Apollo programme and the era of single-mission spacecraft. Political and public support for the huge investment the space programme required in the 1960s declined as fast as it had risen. Indeed, by 1969, several of the astronauts involved in America's pioneering space programmes had also departed for new career goals. The aborted flight of Apollo 13 in 1970, further budget restrictions and other domestic issues, all contributed to the end of the manned lunar programme in 1972, with the final flight of an Apollo-type spacecraft in 1975.

Ready for flight

But the nature of the orbiter meant there was no way to launch a boilerplate model into space. Similarly, while there were many test firings of the engines, they could not be flown alone. So the first launch of the Space Shuttle became the ultimate all-up test - after nine years of development and many billions of dollars of investment, the maiden flight of the fully functional orbiter Columbia, designated STS-1, on 12 April 1981, was one of those occasions where a single fault might cause a critical failure, even if everything else worked.

Rocket renaissance

Robert Bigelow, the hotel billionaire, who is innovating with orbital inflatables at Bigelow Aerospace in Los Angeles, is underwriting a 50m prize for a manned vehicle that is able to reach an altitude of 200 km and complete two orbits of the Earth (see Exhibit 111). The second feat must be accomplished within 60 days of the first orbit and before the end of year 2010 Among the commercial rewards for the winner is a chance to become a supplier for Bigelow inflatable space habitats, as small space stations or hotels Other encouraging trends in space commerce are the Space Frontier Foundation conferences, and even the aborted Space Entrepreneurs Trade Association. Still another example is the Space Stock Surfers Club which facilitates investment in aerospace ventures that promote space economic development (email alexho aol.com).

Doing The Twist

''We had to do a fair amount of analysis to ensure that we weren't doing something dumb,'' said Flight Director Wayne Hale. ''One thing we didn't want to perturb was the RTLS abort mode,'' which Kregel would perform in the event of an emergency early in the ascent. ''That the RTLS is a fairly intricate manoeuvre, it's been analysed to death and we spent a lot of money making sure it would work if we ever had to do that and it is based on a heads-down trajectory. So we picked a time for the roll that was after negative return to KSC .'' The analysis concluded that, even with electrical failures or two main engines shutting down, ''it never goes what you would call 'out of control' ''.


Cassini also provided one more example of the increasingly commercial mindset of JPL, one that extended into the practice of systems engineering. The number of instrument teams complicated the usual negotiations for mass, money, and power supplies. John Casani, the initial project manager, brought in John Ledyard, a Caltech economist, for advice on the allocation of resources among the teams. Instead of the standard, centralized allocation of reserves by the project manager, Ledyard recommended a decentralized marketplace Casani would give all the reserves to the instrument teams at the outset and then set up an online bazaar. As Casani described it, If you need more money, you say, 'I've got 3 kilograms, what am I bid for it ' You can sell some of your mass margin, or you can sell some of your power margin, or you can sell some of your money margin. Or you can say, 'I need money this year, if you give me a hundred thousand this year I'll give you a hundred twenty-five thousand next...

Absence Of Evidence

So, yes, let's get billionaires to spend millions, or taxpayers to spend pennies, to build huge radio arrays. Let's scan all the stars we can in any way we can think of, for as long as we can. Because you never know. Still, after more than forty years, you do start to wonder


Unless the company is graced by some kind of financial independence or government contract. The alternative may be stagnation for a venture with otherwise workable ideas. The bottom line is funding. Without it, nothing happens, and no one flies. Even Robert Goddard relied on backing from the Smithsonian Institution to conduct his rocket research.

Genesis Of Chandra

''The alternative we were looking at was Chandra in this orbit, or no Chandra at all,'' Weisskopf said, ''and so we took the risk to reduce the cost because the option scientifically was infinitely better to have a Chandra in orbit than no Chandra at all. We saved billions of dollars with that decision.'' The decision to launch the observatory into an orbit that was beyond the capabilities of Shuttle repair crews was, however, a tough sell. Already, Hubble had been sent into orbit with a flawed primary mirror and only the skills of spacewalking Shuttle astronauts had saved it.

Eyepiece designs

After a century of stagnation, eyepiece technology began to advance rapidly around 1980, and today you can buy finer eyepieces than previous generations would have dreamed of. You can also spend more money on them. There have been three main advances sharper images, more eye relief, and wider fields.

Future directions

More imaginative still is a NASA mission now under planning that purports to achieve nothing short of actually photographing the event horizon of several nearby supermassive black holes in X-ray light. A duo of powerful new NASA telescopes, with costs estimated in the billions of dollars, are being developed collaboratively by NASA and the University of Colorado at Boulder, and are proposed for flight before 2020. These telescopes are part of the Microarcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission, or MAXIM for short. The main mission would consist of a fleet of 33 spacecraft, each containing a relatively small telescope. But by combining the data gathered by so many separate instruments distributed over an extraordinarily large baseline in space, one may achieve a resolution of the sky about one million times better than what is currently attainable. A ground-based optical telescope with this same capability would enable us to read a newspaper on the lunar surface

C6 References

Peter Diamandis has forecast that the next race into space will be led by entrepreneurs, members of the private sector, who envision the high frontier as an opportunity for expansion and vast wealth creation. Some of these leaders have already emerged from among the new billionaires who benefited from high-tech innovations. Beside the NewSpace enterprises, many of the start-up companies will come out of the older aerospace technologies and corporations. Let us examine just one XCOR Aerospace based at the Mojave Spaceport and Civilian Aerospace Test Center in California. It has improved on traditional rocket technology to create the EZ-Rocket for manned flying vehicles. Its engines are fueled with isopropyl alcohol and liquid oxygen. The alcohol is stored in an external composite fuel tank, and the LOX is contained in an insulated internal aluminum liquid oxygen tank. The EZ-Rocket is incorporated into XERUS, a multi-mission suborbital spacecraft with many safety features. Its...

Who Owns Outer Space

This creates a bit of a futuristic dilemma, especially for terrestrial companies that may want to mine lunar oxygen or harvest lunar-water ice as part of an expanding free-market activity in the commercial space economic sector. Space resource harvesting for profit would clearly exert ownership on the material being extracted. However, before any terrestrial company will be willing to invest and risk the billions of dollars in necessary advanced space-technology equipment, the current vagueness of ownership of space resources must be resolved by international agreement.

Choosing a Telescope

If you want to see planetary detail or intricate features on the Moon, you will need a telescope. The theory of telescope operation is discussed in Chapter 17. Here we'll take a pragmatic view. If reading this chapter tempts you to go out and buy a telescope, that's fine, but don't spend more money than you can afford. Sleep on the idea before you act on it.

The People of JPL

How did JPL get individuals to work toward collective goals There were several possible motivations the chance to advance national priorities, the romance of space exploration, technical and scientific challenges, and personal ambition. Selfish considerations proved stronger. A staff survey in 1980 asked what factors should influence selection of lab missions lab employees rated national and social needs the least important and personal satisfaction and career goals the most important.101 But the work itself enticed many lab staff. Lab managers identified two general categories of people at JPL One part includes those individuals who are inspired by the Space Exploration Program itself to make their careers at JPL. They tend to be associated with mission and system analysis and design functions. The other part includes the expert engineers who build their careers around challenging application of forefront technology. They tend to be more heavily in the subsystem and operations...

Space Tourism

Bigelow Nasa Nautilus

Below On 4 October 2004 SpaceShipOne rocketed into history, becoming the first private manned spacecraft to exceed an altitude of328,000 feet twice within a 14-day period, thus claiming the ten million dollar Ansari X-Prize. (The first of the two X-Prize flights had been completed successfully on 29 September 2004.) In addition to meeting the altitude requirement to win the X-Prize, pilot Brian Bin-nie also broke the 22 August 1963 record by Joseph A. Walker, who few the X-15 to an unofficial world altitude record of354,200 feet. Brian Binnie's SpaceShipOne flight carried him all the way to 367,442 feet or 69.6 miles above the Earth's surface. Here the White Knight turbojet climbs with SpaceShipOne under its belly. Image courtesy Scaled Composites, LLC.

Mapping Hell

Orbiter Structural Spares

Despite being promoted as a relatively inexpensive mission, by the time that it was ready for launch Magellan's price tag had almost doubled to 550 million due in part to the delays caused by the Challenger disaster, but also as a result of cost overruns - mostly concerning the development of the radar (over which JPL had at one point to regain control from the contractor) and to redesigns and improvements which made the spacecraft more capable but also more expensive. In fact, as early as 1984 JPL had identified numerous ''half-million-dollar items'' for improving the spacecraft and its performance, some of which were implemented during the years that the Shuttle was grounded. One improvement that was not funded was to put a 30-cm aluminum skirt around the circumference of the antenna in order to boost its radar performance. Another source of overruns was that on the revised schedule Magellan would be launched before Galileo, rather than after it, which meant that some of the spare...

Solar Week

One of the main metrics of the impact of any E PO effort is the assessment of how the students' knowledge or understanding has improved after their participation. Meaningful assessment for any project, however, is extremely difficult to achieve, especially for those E PO efforts relying on the part-time participation of scientists. The ultimate aim of most of our efforts is the hope that there is a budding scientist out there who needs a little encouragement and inspiration to choose science as an education and or career goal and that our projects provide that inspiration or encouragement. The success of this aim is difficult to assess or evaluate.


These four vignettes provide a brief glimpse into the careers of individuals who began working in pure astronomical research and branched out into other areas, some more traditional than others. What is evident is that none of the people waited for change to come to them but took advantage of their situation and skills to launch out onto an alternate career path. They enjoy an exciting work environment, financial freedom, and a more constrained work environment. Astronomers can and do succeed in very different career tracks than their precise training has prepared them to follow.

Full Plate

Deck Flight Rogers Center

To support the new rocket on STS-61F and STS-61G, both Challenger and Atlantis underwent a series of extensive modifications, costing around five million dollars apiece, which included extra plumbing to load and drain the Centaur's propellants and control panels in their aft flight decks to monitor its performance. As NASA's newest orbiter, Atlantis had been made Centaur-capable during her initial construction and was destined to spend the first part of 1986 out at Pad 39B undergoing validation tests of the new hardware. Challenger, too, had received the Centaur upgrades, which also included the addition of an S-band transmitter to handle the booster's telemetred data. During typical, pre-launch loading operations, the Centaur's liquids would have been fed through plumbing 'tapped into' the Shuttle's main propulsion system feedlines. Emergency dumping vents - capable of draining all liquid oxygen and hydrogen from the booster within 250 seconds of an abort being declared - were...

B6 References

Two fundamental realities will drive space exploration forward. First, wealth is accumulating in the hands of ambitious and visionary individuals, many of whom view space simultaneously as an adventure and a place to make money. What was once affordable only to nations can now be funded by individuals.

Human Satellites

After more than four years in the design definition stage, in February 1980 NASA awarded the 26.7 million MMU fabrication contract to Martin Marietta. The first two operational flight units, valued at around ten million dollars apiece, arrived at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, in September 1983 to support astronaut training. Two months later, they were installed aboard Challenger. Each weighing 140 kg, they were painted white to achieve adequate thermal control in the harsh environment of low-Earth orbit and were fitted with electrical heaters to keep their components above minimum temperature levels.

Xbl 86129289

Individual weights, it may be true that the survival of the lighter weight species depends more on their larger population than on their smaller body weights. I doubt that we will ever know the details of why certain species survived, and others went extinct, and it may even be a mistake to try to identify the difference between the two kinds. To me, that could be like trying to find out in what significant way two neighbors in California differ, that explains why one of them won 4 million dollars in the state lottery, while the other got nothing.

NASA Lifting Bodies

The M2-F2 in Fig. 1.15 was much heavier than the M2-F1. Like the Bell X-1 (and all subsequent lifting bodies), it was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine. It was built by Northrup, and a series of drop and glide flights was conducted from beneath the same B-52 that had been used in the X-15 program. The M2-F2 had only two vertical tail fins, and was therefore prone to lateral instability. It was difficult to steer. On its 16th glide test, on May 10, 1967, pilot Bruce Peterson crashed on the dry lakebed and was severely injured. Footage of this crash was later used in the opening sequence of the mid-1970s TV series The Six Million Dollar Man. As a result of this crash, the craft was modified by adding a third vertical stabilizer between the other two, and redesignated the M2-F3 (Figs. 1.14 and 1.16).


Other mechanisms need to work properly and continuously during the entire mission, such as antenna-pointing mechanisms and the Solar Array Drive Mechanisms that keep the solar arrays aimed at the Sun. These mechanisms require special attention and are therefore rather expensive, in the order of half a million dollars each.

The New Guys Deliver

After their construction, Anik-C 1 and C2 were placed into storage until suitable dates could be established to launch them both. By coincidence, Anik-C3's completion occurred at the same time as Telesat's first contracted flight opportunity on the Shuttle, so it was decided to take it straight from the factory to the launch pad. Anik-C3 thus rode aboard Columbia on STS-5 in November 1982 - the first 'commercial' Shuttle mission - followed by Anik-C2 on Crippen's flight and Anik-Cl aboard the orbiter Discovery in the spring of 1985. Telesat reportedly paid NASA somewhere between nine and ten million dollars to launch Anik-C2 alone.


Sudanese Men

Admittedly, the reusable spacecraft was far from achieving NASA's vision of a flight every fortnight - a rate which presumed a six- or seven-strong fleet of orbiters, rather than the four ultimately built - but it was certainly beginning to prove its commercial worth. Tucked into the Shuttle's payload bay for the planned five-day flight was an Indian communications satellite called Insat-IB, which had netted the agency four million dollars in fees and which Gardner and Bluford would deploy a few hours after lift-off. Unfortunately, another major cargo element - the second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, known as 'TDRS-B' - had already been deleted from STS-8's roster following the embarrassing Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster failure in April 1983.

Hazardous Hydrazine

Obviously, for the sake of maximum data return from SIR-B, it was hoped that the second option could be averted. Moreover, if the antenna could not be retracted at all, the crew would be forced to jettison it overboard in order to close the payload bay doors for re-entry. That, said Leestma, was equally unthinkable. The Ku-band assembly and digital avionics was worth a million dollars, he said, so it would have been a very big loss to the programme if we had to jettison it.

Space Weather

Flare Jettison Night

Even back in the 1840s, when telegraph lines were first deployed, operators noticed extra current whenever overhead auroras signaled the presence of an intense geomagnetic storm. And about a century and a half later, on 13 March 1989, a particularly severe geomagnetic storm, produced by a coronal mass ejection, plunged virtually all of the Canadian province of Quebec into complete darkness without warning and within a few seconds. Six million customers were without electricity for over nine hours, in the middle of a frigid winter night, costing around 500 million dollars counting losses only from unserved demand, tte disturbed magnetic fields induced electric currents in the Earth's surface, which in turn created voltage surges on the long-distance power lines, blowing circuit breakers, overheating or melting the windings of transformers, and causing the massive electrical failure.


This book would not have been possible without the assistance of a number of individuals far more knowledgeable than I on the intricacies of the Solid Rocket Boosters, Shuttle main engines, External Tank fuelling procedures, crew training activities and, of course, the operation of the orbiter's multi-million-dollar toilet. I must thank the ever-patient Clive Horwood of Praxis for his support and advice, David Harland for reviewing each chapter, pointing out my mistakes and sharpening up the text, and to the project's copy editor, Alex Whyte.


Both landing opportunities for that day - at 10 47 am and 12 23 pm - were called off due to cloud cover to the east of the SLF runway that Air Force meteorologists were worried could drift over the runway and hamper Cabana and Halsell's visibility on final approach. The weather was fine at Edwards Air Force Base but, with anticipated good conditions in Florida on 23 July, and presumably unwilling to pay the million-dollar fee of ferrying Columbia back to KSC from California on top of a 747, NASA opted to keep the crew aloft for an additional 24 hours.

Birth Of Challenger

To understand the purpose of this payload bay, one must first comprehend the underlying reasons for the Shuttle's existence and the billions of dollars invested in what was undoubtedly the most advanced spacecraft yet to leave Earth. As well as being advanced, the four-strong fleet of orbiter vehicles were also to be reusable capable of flying, supposedly, every fortnight to carry commercial satellites, scientific laboratories, space probes, astronomical instruments and - for the first time -ordinary civilians aloft. Plans were underway to send teachers, journalists and foreign nationals into space, with up to seven seats available on each mission.

Successful Mission

It was expected that bringing each Shuttle mission back home to the East Coast launch site would save around one million dollars and five days' worth of processing for the next flight. Moreover, KSC landings would remove the necessity to expose the two-billion-dollar orbiter to the uncertainties and potential dangers of a cross-country ferry flight from Edwards Air Force Base in California atop NASA's heavily modified Boeing 747. However, as Crippen's crew discovered that June day in 1982, the West Coast landing site exhibited far more stable weather conditions than Florida.

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