Shapiro has been responsible for major advances in radio and radar science, and he has made fundamental theoretical and observational contributions to celestial mechanics, astrometry, astrophysics, gravitation physics, geophysics and planetary physics. His planetary ephemerides, considered among the best available, have been used for virtually every Arecibo Observatory radar observation of asteroids, comets, planets, and the satellites of Mars and Jupiter. The underlying ephemeris software also constitutes a primary tool for analysis of VLBI measurements, whose diverse applications include high-precision terrestrial geodesy. During the early 1960s Shapiro played a central role in the radar determination of the astronomical unit, and his research since then has led to refined values for planetary orbital elements, masses, dimensions and spin vectors. (M 13610)
Name suggested and citation written by S. J. Ostro, who was a student of Shapiro.
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