Environmental Impact of Young Stars

13 Jets and Molecular Outflows 428

13.1 Jets from Embedded Stars 428

13.2 Molecular Outflows 443

13.3 Wind Generation: Pressure Effects 456

13.4 Wind Generation: Rotation and Magnetic Fields 461

13.5 Jet Propagation and Entrainment 470

14 Interstellar Masers 488

14.1 Observed Characteristics 488

14.2 Maser Theory: Basic Principles 497

14.3 Maser Theory: Further Considerations 504

14.4 Tracing Jets and Outflows 508

15 Effects of Massive Stars 518

15.1 HII Regions 518

15.2 Ultracompact HII Regions and Hot Cores 529

15.3 Winds and Molecular Outflows 535

15.4 Photoevaporation of Gas 547

15.5 Induced Star Formation 559

V Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

16 Quasi-Static Contraction 576

16.1 The Stellar Birthline 576

16.2 The Contraction Process 584

16.3 Nuclear Reactions 596

16.4 Brown Dwarfs 603

16.5 Spinup and Spindown 610

17 T Tauri Stars 624

17.1 Line and Continuum Emission 624

17.2 Outflow and Infall 637

17.3 Circumstellar Disks 646

17.4 Temporal Variability 661

17.5 Post-T Tauri Stars and Beyond 672

18 Herbig Ae/Be Stars 685

18.1 Basic Properties 685

18.2 Nonhomologous Evolution 694

18.3 Thermal and Mechanical Effects 705

18.4 Gaseous and Debris Disks 715

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