PrefaceXI I Star Formation in Our Galaxy

1 Overview 2

1.1 Stellar Nurseries: Orion 2

1.2 Stellar Nurseries: Taurus-Auriga 10

1.3 Stars and Their Evolution 15

1.4 The Galactic Context 25

2 The Interstellar Medium 32

2.1 Galactic Gas and Its Detection 32

2.2 Phases of the Interstellar Medium 38

2.3 Interstellar Dust: Extinction and Thermal Emission 42

2.4 Interstellar Dust: Properties of the Grains 51

3 Molecular Clouds 60

3.1 Giant Molecular Clouds 60

3.2 Virial Theorem Analysis 68

3.3 Dense Cores and Bok Globules 73

4 Young Stellar Systems 88

4.1 Embedded Clusters 88

4.2 T and R Associations 97

4.3 OB Associations 107

4.4 Open Clusters 117

4.5 The Initial Mass Function 122

II Physical Processes in Molecular Clouds

5 Molecular Transitions: Basic Physics 135

5.1 Interstellar Molecules 135

5.2 Hydrogen (H2) 141

5.3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 146

5.6 Hydroxyl (OH) 158

6 Molecular Transitions: Applications 164

6.1 Carbon Monoxide 164

6.2 Ammonia 171

6.3 Hydroxyl 175

7 Heating and Cooling 184

7.1 Cosmic Rays 184

7.2 Interstellar Radiation 190

7.3 Cooling by Atoms 197

7.4 Cooling by Molecules and Dust 200

8 Cloud Thermal Structure 207

8.1 The Buildup of Molecules 207

8.2 The Molecular Interior 215

8.3 Photodissociation Regions 221

8.4 J-Shocks 226

8.5 C-Shocks 233

III From Clouds to Stars

9 Cloud Equilibrium and Stability 242

9.1 Isothermal Spheres and the Jeans Mass 242

9.2 Rotating Configurations 250

9.3 Magnetic Flux Freezing 256

9.4 Magnetostatic Configurations 263

9.5 Support from MHD Waves 271

10 The Collapse of Dense Cores 282

10.1 Ambipolar Diffusion 282

10.2 Inside-Out Collapse 292

10.3 Magnetized Infall 298

10.4 Rotational Effects 304

11 Protostars 317

11.1 First Core and Main Accretion Phase 317

11.2 Interior Evolution: Deuterium Burning 326

11.3 Protostellar Disks 335

11.4 More Massive Protostars 347

11.5 The Observational Search 356

12 Multiple Star Formation 369

12.1 Dynamical Fragmentation of Massive Clouds 369

12.2 Young Binary Stars 380

12.3 The Origin of Binaries 394

12.4 Formation of Stellar Groups 406

12.5 Massive Stars and Their Associations 416

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