Section 2.1 The astronomical significance of the 21 cm line from atomic hydrogen was pointed out by van de Hulst in 1945. For an English translation of the paper, see van de Hulst, H. C. 1979, in A Source Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics: 1900-1975, ed. K. R. Lang and O. Gingerich (Cambridge: Harvard U. Press), p. 627.
The line was actually first detected by
Ewen, H. I. & Purcell, E. M. 1951, Nature, 168, 356
Muller, C. A. & Oort, J. 1951, Nature, 16S, 357.
A useful review of the HI gas in the Galaxy is
Burton, W. B. 1992, in The Galactic Interstellar Medium, ed. D. Pfenninger and P. Bartholdi (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), p. 1.
The distribution of molecular hydrogen, including the implications for spiral structure and cloud properties, is covered in
Combes, F. 1991, ARAA, 29, 195, while the HII component is summarized by
Gordon, M. A. 1988, in Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy, ed. G. L. Verschuur and K. I. Kellerman (Berlin: Springer-Verlag).
Section 2.2 The modern concept of phases in the interstellar medium was introduced by
Field, G. B., Goldsmith, D. W., & Habing, H. J. 1969, ApJ, 155, L149.
Two other important, early contributions were
McKee, C. F. & Ostriker, J. P. 1977, ApJ, 218, 148.
The first paper discusses effects of supernova remnants, while the second introduced the three-phase medium. A current review of the field is
Dopita, M. A. & Sutherland, R. S. 2002, in Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), Chapter 14.
Sections 2.3 and 2.4 An introduction to the physical properties of interstellar dust grains and their astronomical significance is
Whittet, D. C. B. 1992, Dust in the Galactic Environment (Bristol: Institute of Physics).
For a more detailed treatment of various aspects of grain physics, see
Krugel, E. 2003, The Physics of Interstellar Dust (Bristol: Institute of Physics).
The grain size distribution was derived empirically by
Mathis, J. S., Rumpl, W., & Nordsieck, K. H. 1977, ApJ, 217, 425, while the relation between EB-V and NH is due to
Bohlin, R. C., Savage, B. D., & Drake, J. F. 1978, ApJ, 224, 132.
A detailed theoretical study of dust opacity is
The ongoing effort to quantify the extinction at far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths is reviewed in
Henning, Th., Michel, B., & Stognienko, R. 1995, Planet. Sp. Sci., 43, 1333.
The Formation of Stars
Steven W. Stahler and Francesco Palla © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
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