Section 7.1 The phenomenology of cosmic rays, together with an historical account of early research, may be found in
Friedlander, M. W. 1989, Cosmic Rays (Cambridge: Harvard U. Press). A broader and somewhat more technical book is
Schlickeiser, R. 2000, Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (Berlin: Springer-Verlag). Our discussion of the heat deposition in molecular clouds has utilized the theoretical studies of Cravens, T. E. & Dalgarno, A. 1978, ApJ, 219, 750 Van Dishoeck, E. F. & Dalgarno, A. 1984, ApJ, 277, 576, where the latter obtains the lifetime of OH against photodissociation.
Section 7.2 Cloud heating by the diffuse radiation field is covered in the useful review of
Black, J. H. 1987, in Interstellar Processes, ed. D. J. Hollenbach & H. A. Thronson (Dordrecht: Reidel), p. 731.
The physics of the grain photoelectric effect has been summarized by
Hollenbach, D. J. 1990, in The Evolution of the Interstellar Medium, ed. L. Blitz (ASP Conf. Ser. Vol. 12), p. 167.
The contribution to this process from PAHs is in
Bakes, E. L. O. & Tielens, A. G. G. M. 1994, ApJ, 427, 822.
For cloud heating by stellar X-rays, see
Krolik, J. H. & Kallman, T. R. 1983, ApJ, 267, 810, although our treatment is quite different.
Section 7.3 The L-S coupling underlying atomic fine-structure transitions is explained in
Messiah, A. 1975, Quantum Mechanics, Vol. II (Amsterdam: North Holland), Chapter 16.
Observations of these lines in molecular clouds have been reviewed by
Melnick, G. J. 1990, in Molecular Astrophysics, ed. T. W. Hartquist (Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press), p. 273.
Section 7.4 Our presentation of CO cooling is largely based on the detailed analysis by
Goldreich, P. & Kwan, J. 1974, ApJ, 189,441, and gives similar numerical results to the later work of
Neufeld, D. A., Lepp, S., & Melnick, G. J. 1995, ApJSS, 100, 132. This paper also includes the cooling rates for other abundant molecules.
The Formation of Stars
Steven W. Stahler and Francesco Palla © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
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