Universe of Stars

19 Star Formation on the Galactic Scale 730

19.1 The Milky Way Revisited 730

19.2 Other Galaxies 736

19.3 The Starburst Phenomenon 749

19.4 Galaxies in Their Youth 761

19.5 The First Stars 771

20 The Physical Problem: A Second Look 783

20.1 Clouds 783

20.2 Stars 785

20.3 Galaxies 788

Appendices

A Astronomical Conventions 791

A.1 Units and Constants 791

A.2 Photometric Systems 792

A.3 Equatorial and Galactic Coordinates 792

B The Two-Level System 794

C Transfer of Radiation in Spectral Lines 797

D Derivation of the Virial Theorem 800

E Spectral Line Broadening 802

E.1 Natural Width 802

E.2 Thermal, Turbulent, and Collisional Broadening 806

E.3 Rotational Broadening of Stellar Lines 808

E.4 Two Examples: H2 and CO in Clouds 811

F Shock Jump Conditions 812

G Radiative Diffusion and Stellar Opacity 815

H Derivation of Binary Star Relations 819

I Evaluation of a Polytropic Integral 821

Sources for Tables, Figures, and Plates 823

Index of Astronomical Objects 835

Subject Index 839

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