The lunar architecture selected by NASA was the so-called 1.5-launch EOR-LOR architecture with the LSAM and EDS pre-deployed in a single launch to LEO with the heavy-lift CaLV. A second launch of a 25 mT class CLV delivers the CEV and crew to orbit, where the two vehicles initially rendezvous and dock. The EDS then performs the TLI burn for both the LSAM and CEV and is then discarded. Upon reaching the Moon, the LSAM performs the LOI for the two mated elements, and the entire crew transfers to the LSAM, undocks from the CEV, and performs descent to the surface. The CEV is left unoccupied in LLO. After a lunar stay of up to 7 days, the LSAM returns the crew to lunar orbit, where the LSAM and CEV dock and the crew transfers back to the CEV. The CEV then returns the crew to Earth with a direct or skip-entry-and-land touchdown, while the LSAM is disposed of via impact on the lunar surface. This is illustrated in Figure 7.9.

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