CR interactions with electrons of space plasma and ionization losses

1.5.1. Ionization energy losses by CR nuclei during propagation in space

The ionization losses (energy losses for excitation and ionization of atoms of medium and for generation of Cherenkov radiation and 8-electron production) by a proton or nucleus with total energy E, rest mass M, and charge Z is in eV/sec (according to Ginzburg and Syrovatsky, M1963):

4ne4 Z 2 Ne ln mv

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