Fig. 2.19.1. Solar wind electron density (solid), Alfven speed (dashed), and flow speed (dot-dashed). By crosses are shown results of Bird and Edenhofer (1990) of semi-empirical electron densities. From Vainio et al. (2003a).

In Fig. 2.19.2 the resulting 10 MeV proton mean free path is plotted for wave parameters ep = 5 x10-5 and a1 which has a constant value at r > 10rs and increases linearly from 0 to this value at rs < r < 10rs (such values of ep are needed to produce a solar wind fulfilling observational criteria of mass flux and speed according to Laitinen et al., 2003; the values for a1 are taken from papers modeling the solar wind expansion: Hu et al., 1999; Laitinen et al., 2003).

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