NeEk at32

where A is the atomic number and Z is the effective charge of the particle.

1.5.2. Ionization and bremsstrahlung losses for CR electrons

The formulas for the ionization losses of relativistic electrons (in eV/sec) are somewhat different from Eq. 1.5.1 and Eq. 1.5.2 (the difference is mainly associated with the fact that the maximum energy transferred to electron in collisions with electron is ~ E/2):

dE dt

in atomic hydrogen,

in plasma.

Besides that, owing to their collisions with nuclei and electrons of medium, the electrons lose their energy by production of bremsstrahlung y-quanta (Ginzburg and Syrovatsky, M1963):

8.0 in atomic hydrogen,

in plasma.

Since the bremsstrahlung y-quanta's energy is of the order of the electron energy, the continuous low-portion energy loss is substituted by discrete loss of electrons; it may be assumed in this case that the probability P(s) for an electron to traverse a path s (in g/cm2) is, according to Eq. 1.5.8:

exp(- s/62) in atomic hydrogen.

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