pion or muon in dependence of their energy during the time-gate (~ 10 sec) m — mass of electron mac — mass of accelerated particle m w.e. — meters of water equivalent mi(R, h) — integral multiplicity: number of secondary CR particles of type i on level h from one primary CR particle with rigidity R on the top of atmosphere mn, mju — rest mass of pions, muons

MT — muon or meson telescope

NM — neutron monitor or super-monitor

NM-64 or NM-IQSY — neutron super-monitor of IQSY type

NM-IGY — neutron monitor of IGY or Simpson's type

Pji — fragmentation coefficient (average number of nuclei of type i formatted from one more heavy nuclei of type j > i). QLT — quasy linear theory R = pc/Ze — particle rigidity Rc — geomagnetic cutoff rigidity rD = ((/4nNe2 ) cm—Debye radius in space plasma rg = cp/ZeH cm _ Larmor radius

SA—solar activity

SCR — solar cosmic rays

SEP — solar energetic particles

SW — Space Weather

T(h) — vertical air temperature distribution

Ti = Xi / pvi — time life of CR particles relative to nuclear interactions in space plasma with density p (vi is the velocity of CR particles of type i)

tm = L2 /vm = 2.5 x10-13 L2T32 — the magnetic field time dissipation in space plasma u1 — velocity of shock front u2 — velocity of matter after shock front uj u2 = r — shock wave ratio v—velocity of particle

(ve) = ^J3kTe/m ~ 6.8x105Te12 cm/sec — mean velocities of electron motion in ionized hydrogen (Te is the electron temperature in °K). W(R, h) — coupling function

X(Ek) — number of g/cm2 of matter transferred by CR

Y(R, ho) or Y(E, ho) — yield function (characterized the dependence of CR detector counting rate per one primary proton from particle rigidity or energy) Ze — charge of particle

Zg — charge of atoms in background plasma

Z* ~(y/{ve))z 13 — effective charge of particle at 1 < v/(ve) < Z13 (v - velocity of particle, (ve) _ average velocity of electrons in atoms of background plasma.

6— scattering angle 6 — zenith angle a — scattering angle A — latitude

A — average size of magnetic inhomogeneities in space plasma 9 — longitude

A — CR transport path in space plasma AG /Ek ) — CR transport path in the Galaxy

AGloc /Ek ) — CR transport path in the local region near the Sun of the Galaxy

A, = 2 x10 T N — transport path of ions in space plasma

A — transport paths (in g/cm2 ) for absorption of different nuclei of CR

¡1 — positive and negative muons vm = 4 x1012T _— magnetic viscosity in space plasma

+ __o n — positive, negative and neutral pions a = H 2 Hl = Ul!u2 — degree of the compression of transverse magnetic field in the shock wave

<r = 2 x107 T32 — conductivity in space plasma

<ri — cross sections for nuclear interactions of different nuclei of CR (in 10_26 cm2 )

— ionization cross section of shell i with ionization k potential Jt (K is the coefficient of the order of unity).

zn, T^ — life-time of rest charged pions and muons (Og = mc/ZeH sec-1 — Larmor or gyro-frequency

Chapter 1

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