atoms penetrating from interstellar space and others. According to calculations of Le Roux and Fichtner (1997), the change of solar wind speed with the distance r from the Sun can be described approximately as u(r ) Ml(1 - b(r/rtSw )), (2.46.35)
where rtsw is the distance to the terminal shock wave and parameter b ~ 0.13 0.45 depends on sub-shock compression ratio and on injection efficiency of pickup protons. On the basis of Eq. 2.46.35 we can determine the radius of CR modulation region rmod from equation:
(Xomax )opt = J («1(1 - br/rtsw ))_1 dr = -rtsw ln(- b + rmod /rtsw V(b«1 ) ,(2.46.36)
Was this article helpful?
Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.