Fig. 2.46.9. Natural logarithms of corrected GOES monthly data for 60 MeV < Ek < 100 MeV : full circles - LN(1MCOR). Months largely affected by solar CR increases are excluded; the missing values have been calculated by linear interpolation. Monthly data after December 1995 are corrected for the jump with amplitude 0.007. Also 11-month moving averages are shown: thick curve - LN(11MCOR). From Dorman et al. (2005c).

2.46.5. Convection-diffusion modulation and correction for drift modulation of the satellite proton data

For determining the diffusion time-lag T^if we use the 2-nd Approach, in which all quantities are defined (see Section 2.46.2):

For observations near Earth's orbit (robs -1AU) the value of Xobs = robsluef <<1av.month, and in Eq. 2.46.22 we can neglect Xobs in comparison with Xo = ro/udr and with X = .

The dependence Cav (Ref), estimated for several values of Ref (0.3, 1, 3 and 12.5 GV), can be approximated as (with correlation coefficient 0.988):

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