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v where v and Ek are the particle velocity and kinetic energy; Ne is the concentration of the medium electrons; m is the electron mass, J is the ionization potential. The Eq. 1.5.1 is also valid within a sufficient accuracy for a medium comprising, apart from hydrogen, helium and other light elements. In a completely ionized medium with electron concentration Ne the loss for production of

8-electrons (close collisions) and Cherenkov radiation of plasma waves (remote collisions) is significant. Such a loss has been totaled (in eV/sec):

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