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Fig. 3.10.2. Calculated solar wind speed normalised to 400 km/sec as a function of the radial distance to the Sun (in AU units) in the upwind direction. The dashed curve is the solution which includes the dynamic effects of pickup ions, but not anomalous and galactic CR. The solid curve inclines in addition the dynamic effects of anomalous and galactic CR. Top panel for n = 0.0003; bottom panel for n = 0.9. The solid triangles indicate the subshock. According to Le Roux and Fichtner (1997a,b).

The difference between the two cases (a) and (b) can be further illustrated with a comparison of the combined anomalous CR and galactic CR pressure with the solar wind ram and thermal pressure (Fig. 3.10.3).

nONLINEAR cOSMIC rAY eFFECTS IN sPACE pLASMAS

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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