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where the coordinate qM (m = 1,2,... d) is composed of spatial coordinates and particle momentum or energy, and Q is the source term. Table 2.25.1 lists the variables and parameters for studying solar modulation, interstellar propagation and diffusive particle acceleration.

In Section 2.25, and particularly in the Table 2.25.1, the following definitions are used: f - the isotropic distribution function; Ni - the flux per energy range for nuclei; Ne - the flux per energy range for the electrons; x - the guiding center position; p - the momentum; E - the energy; kv - the diffusion coefficient tensor; k - the diffusion coefficient scalar; Dp - the Fermi acceleration coefficient; V - the convection speed of plasma; Vd - the drift speed in magnetic fields; bi - the ionization energy loss rate; be - the synchrotron energy loss rate; n - the interstellar medium density; v - the particle speed; <ri - the total cross scalar section for specie i; <rik - the cross section matrix from species k to i; Ti - the radioactive decay time for specie i; Tik - the radioactive decay time matrix from species k to i.

Table 2.25.1. Parameters in the diffusion equation for applications to CR modulation, propagation and acceleration studies. According to Zhang (1999c).

Parameters

Heliospheric modulation

Interstellar propagation

Shock acceleration

Nuclei

Electrons

u

f

Ni (i -species)

Ne

f

q-space

x

x

x

x

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