3.1. The important role of nonlinear CR effects in many processes and objects in space
At the foundation of nonlinear CR effects in space plasma are two phenomena:
1) influence of CR pressure on plasma dynamics; this was first considered by Axford and Newman (1965) for solar wind propagation, and then by Dorman and Dorman (1968a,b, 1969), Dorman (M1975a,b), Babayan and Dorman (1977a,b, 1979a,b,c, 1981, 1990), Dorman (1995a,b, 1996);
2) kinetic stream instability of anisotropic CR and generation of Alfvén turbulence; this was first considered by Ginzburg (1965) for CR propagation in the interstellar medium, and then by Wentzel (1974), Cesarsky (1980), Babayan et al. (1987), Zirakashvili et al. (1991, 1993), Dorman (1995a,b, 1996).
The nonlinear CR effects are important (see the review in Dorman, 1995a,b; Dorman, 1996):
1. in our Galaxy and other galaxies (galactic wind driven by CR and its influence on CR propagation, chemical composition, and energy spectrum formation);
2. in the outer Heliosphere (dynamic effects of galactic CR pressure on solar wind and interplanetary shock waves propagation, on the formation of the terminal shock wave and the boundary of the Heliosphere, Alfvén turbulence generation by kinetic stream instability of non-isotropic CR fluxes and its influence on CR propagation and modulation);
3. in CR and gamma ray sources (influence of CR pressure and stream instability of escaping particles on acceleration efficiency and formation of energy spectrum and chemical composition of escaping particles, influence of nonlinear effects on gamma-ray emissivity distribution);
4. in the processes of CR acceleration by shock waves and in regions of magnetic field reconnection (inverse influence of pressure and stream instability of accelerated particles on the structure and propagation of shock waves, on processes of reconnection, on formation of accelerated particles energy spectrum and chemical composition).
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