Two types of scatters in space plasma as additional source of particle acceleration

The acceleration of particles to high energies is usually associated with chaotic motion of magnetized plasma (Fermi, 1949, 1954) and with shock waves (Dorman and Freidman, 1959; Shabansky, 1961; Alexeev and Kropotkin, 1970; Axford et al., 1977; Krymsky, 1977; Bell, 1978a,b; Blanford and Ostriker, 1978). It was shown that particle acceleration can be effective also by tangential discontinuities (Alexeev at al., 1970) and by macroscopic flows of magnetized plasma (Berezhko, 1981). Review of acceleration processes in space plasmas can be found in Dorman (M1972b, M1975a), Toptygin (M1983), Berezinsky et al. (M1990). Here we shell consider some additional mechanism of particle acceleration in regions with two types of particle scatters according to Dorman and Shogenov (1985, 1999). The matter is that in many astrophysical objects there are background plasma moved with some speed u1G and characterized by transport path X(R), where R is the CR particle rigidity, and some scatters moved with some different speed u2o and characterized by the transport path (R). As examples of these objects can be considered our Heliosphere (solar wind - as background plasma and interplanetary shock waves and magnetic clouds generated by coronal mass ejections as additional scatters of CR), stellar winds, our Galaxy, interacted galaxies.

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