Oio

Here n is the plasma density and vt is the thermal velocity. It is useful to transform Eq. 3.16.9 to a form more convenient for applications. It is possible to invert the integral operator and obtain the following equation:

One should solve Eq. 3.16.14 in order to use Eq. 3.16.12 except in the case when the collision frequency is large enough and a 'plateau' is absent. In this case one can neglect fo in Eq. 3.16.12 and obtain the well known unsaturated nonlinear damping rate (Lee and Volk, 1973; Kulsrud, 1978; Achterberg, 1981):

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